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Bitcoin - The Currency of the Internet

A community dedicated to Bitcoin, the currency of the Internet. Bitcoin is a distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Bitcoins are issued and managed without any central authority whatsoever: there is no government, company, or bank in charge of Bitcoin. You might be interested in Bitcoin if you like cryptography, distributed peer-to-peer systems, or economics. A large percentage of Bitcoin enthusiasts are libertarians, though people of all political philosophies are welcome.

Bitcoin - The Internet of Money

/btc was created to foster and support free and open Bitcoin discussion about cryptocurrency, Bitcoin news, and exclusive AMA (Ask Me Anything) interviews from top Bitcoin and cryptocurrency leaders. Bitcoin is the currency of the Internet. A distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Unlike traditional currencies such as dollars, bitcoins are issued and managed without the need for any central authority whatsoever. Learn more about Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, cryptocurrency, and more.



BIP: 44 Layer: Applications Title: Multi-Account Hierarchy for Deterministic Wallets Author: Marek Palatinus Pavol Rusnak Comments-Summary: Mixed review (one person) Comments-URI: Status: Proposed

This file is part of the Trezor project.

Copyright (C) 2012-2018 SatoshiLabs and contributors

This library is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify

it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3

as published by the Free Software Foundation.

This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,

but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of


GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the License along with this library.

If not, see

import binascii import functools import getpass import logging import os import sys import time import warnings
from mnemonic import Mnemonic
from . import ( btc, cosi, debuglink, device, ethereum, firmware, lisk, mapping, messages as proto, misc, nem, stellar, tools, )
if sys.version_info.major < 3: raise Exception("Trezorlib does not support Python 2 anymore.")
SCREENSHOT = False LOG = logging.getLogger(name)

make a getch function

try: import termios import tty
# POSIX system. Create and return a getch that manipulates the tty. # On Windows, termios will fail to import.
def getch(): fd = sys.stdin.fileno() old_settings = termios.tcgetattr(fd) try: tty.setraw(fd) ch = finally: termios.tcsetattr(fd, termios.TCSADRAIN, old_settings) return ch
except ImportError: # Windows system. # Use msvcrt's getch function. import msvcrt
def getch(): while True: key = msvcrt.getch() if key in (0x00, 0xe0): # skip special keys: read the scancode and repeat msvcrt.getch() continue return key.decode()
def get_buttonrequest_value(code): # Converts integer code to its string representation of ButtonRequestType return [ k for k in dir(proto.ButtonRequestType) if getattr(proto.ButtonRequestType, k) == code ][0]
class PinException(tools.CallException): pass
class MovedTo: """Deprecation redirector for methods that were formerly part of TrezorClient"""
def init(self, where): self.where = where = where.module + "." +
def _deprecated_redirect(self, client, args, *kwargs): """Redirector for a deprecated method on TrezorClient""" warnings.warn( "Function has been moved to %s" %, DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2, ) return self.where(client, args, *kwargs)
def get(self, instance, cls): if instance is None: return self._deprecated_redirect else: return functools.partial(self._deprecated_redirect, instance)
class BaseClient(object): # Implements very basic layer of sending raw protobuf # messages to device and getting its response back. def init(self, transport, *kwargs):"creating client instance for device: {}".format(transport.getpath())) self.transport = transport super(BaseClient, self).init_() # *args, *kwargs)
def close(self): pass
def cancel(self): self.transport.write(proto.Cancel())
@tools.session def callraw(self, msg): tracebackhide_ = True # for pytest # pylint: disable=W0612 self.transport.write(msg) return
@tools.session def call(self, msg): resp = self.callraw(msg) handler_name = "callback%s" % handler = getattr(self, handler_name, None)
if handler is not None: msg = handler(resp) if msg is None: raise ValueError( "Callback %s must return protobuf message, not None" % handler ) resp =
return resp
def callback_Failure(self, msg): if msg.code in ( proto.FailureType.PinInvalid, proto.FailureType.PinCancelled, proto.FailureType.PinExpected, ): raise PinException(msg.code, msg.message)
raise tools.CallException(msg.code, msg.message)
def register_message(self, msg): """Allow application to register custom protobuf message type""" mapping.register_message(msg)
class TextUIMixin(object): # This class demonstrates easy test-based UI # integration between the device and wallet. # You can implement similar functionality # by implementing your own GuiMixin with # graphical widgets for every type of these callbacks.
def init(self, args, *kwargs): super(TextUIMixin, self).init(args, *kwargs)
@staticmethod def print(text): print(text, file=sys.stderr)
def callback_ButtonRequest(self, msg): # log("Sending ButtonAck for %s " % get_buttonrequest_value(msg.code)) return proto.ButtonAck()
def callback_RecoveryMatrix(self, msg): if self.recovery_matrix_first_pass: self.recovery_matrix_first_pass = False self.print( "Use the numeric keypad to describe positions. For the word list use only left and right keys." ) self.print("Use backspace to correct an entry. The keypad layout is:") self.print(" 7 8 9 7 | 9") self.print(" 4 5 6 4 | 6") self.print(" 1 2 3 1 | 3") while True: character = getch() if character in ("\x03", "\x04"): return proto.Cancel()
if character in ("\x08", "\x7f"): return proto.WordAck(word="\x08")
# ignore middle column if only 6 keys requested. if msg.type == proto.WordRequestType.Matrix6 and character in ( "2", "5", "8", ): continue
if character.isdigit(): return proto.WordAck(word=character)
def callback_PinMatrixRequest(self, msg): if msg.type == proto.PinMatrixRequestType.Current: desc = "current PIN" elif msg.type == proto.PinMatrixRequestType.NewFirst: desc = "new PIN" elif msg.type == proto.PinMatrixRequestType.NewSecond: desc = "new PIN again" else: desc = "PIN"
self.print( "Use the numeric keypad to describe number positions. The layout is:" ) self.print(" 7 8 9") self.print(" 4 5 6") self.print(" 1 2 3") self.print("Please enter %s: " % desc) pin = getpass.getpass("") if not pin.isdigit(): raise ValueError("Non-numerical PIN provided") return proto.PinMatrixAck(pin=pin)
def callback_PassphraseRequest(self, msg): if msg.on_device is True: return proto.PassphraseAck()
if os.getenv("PASSPHRASE") is not None: self.print("Passphrase required. Using PASSPHRASE environment variable.") passphrase = Mnemonic.normalize_string(os.getenv("PASSPHRASE")) return proto.PassphraseAck(passphrase=passphrase)
self.print("Passphrase required: ") passphrase = getpass.getpass("") self.print("Confirm your Passphrase: ") if passphrase == getpass.getpass(""): passphrase = Mnemonic.normalize_string(passphrase) return proto.PassphraseAck(passphrase=passphrase) else: self.print("Passphrase did not match! ") exit()
def callback_PassphraseStateRequest(self, msg): return proto.PassphraseStateAck()
def callback_WordRequest(self, msg): if msg.type in (proto.WordRequestType.Matrix9, proto.WordRequestType.Matrix6): return self.callback_RecoveryMatrix(msg) self.print("Enter one word of mnemonic: ") word = input() if self.expand: word = self.mnemonic_wordlist.expand_word(word) return proto.WordAck(word=word)
class DebugLinkMixin(object): # This class implements automatic responses # and other functionality for unit tests # for various callbacks, created in order # to automatically pass unit tests. # # This mixing should be used only for purposes # of unit testing, because it will fail to work # without special DebugLink interface provided # by the device. DEBUG = LOG.getChild("debug_link").debug
def init(self, args, *kwargs): super(DebugLinkMixin, self).init(args, *kwargs) self.debug = None self.in_with_statement = 0 self.button_wait = 0 self.screenshot_id = 0
# Always press Yes and provide correct pin self.setup_debuglink(True, True)
# Do not expect any specific response from device self.expected_responses = None
# Use blank passphrase self.set_passphrase("")
def close(self): super(DebugLinkMixin, self).close() if self.debug: self.debug.close()
def set_debuglink(self, debug_transport): self.debug = debuglink.DebugLink(debug_transport)
def set_buttonwait(self, secs): self.button_wait = secs
def enter(self): # For usage in with/expected_responses self.in_with_statement += 1 return self
def exit(self, _type, value, traceback): self.in_with_statement -= 1
if _type is not None: # Another exception raised return False
# return isinstance(value, TypeError) # Evaluate missed responses in 'with' statement if self.expected_responses is not None and len(self.expected_responses): raise RuntimeError( "Some of expected responses didn't come from device: %s" % [repr(x) for x in self.expected_responses] )
# Cleanup self.expected_responses = None return False
def set_expected_responses(self, expected): if not self.in_with_statement: raise RuntimeError("Must be called inside 'with' statement") self.expected_responses = expected
def setup_debuglink(self, button, pin_correct): self.button = button # True -> YES button, False -> NO button self.pin_correct = pin_correct
def set_passphrase(self, passphrase): self.passphrase = Mnemonic.normalize_string(passphrase)
def set_mnemonic(self, mnemonic): self.mnemonic = Mnemonic.normalize_string(mnemonic).split(" ")
def callraw(self, msg): tracebackhide_ = True # for pytest # pylint: disable=W0612
if SCREENSHOT and self.debug: from PIL import Image
layout = self.debug.read_layout() im ="RGB", (128, 64)) pix = im.load() for x in range(128): for y in range(64): rx, ry = 127 - x, 63 - y if (ord(layout[rx + (ry / 8) * 128]) & (1 << (ry % 8))) > 0: pix[x, y] = (255, 255, 255)"scr%05d.png" % self.screenshot_id) self.screenshot_id += 1
resp = super(DebugLinkMixin, self).call_raw(msg) self._check_request(resp) return resp
def check_request(self, msg): tracebackhide_ = True # for pytest # pylint: disable=W0612
if self.expected_responses is not None: try: expected = self.expected_responses.pop(0) except IndexError: raise AssertionError( proto.FailureType.UnexpectedMessage, "Got %s, but no message has been expected" % repr(msg), )
if msg.class != expected.class: raise AssertionError( proto.FailureType.UnexpectedMessage, "Expected %s, got %s" % (repr(expected), repr(msg)), )
for field, value in expected.dict.items(): if value is None or value == []: continue if getattr(msg, field) != value: raise AssertionError( proto.FailureType.UnexpectedMessage, "Expected %s, got %s" % (repr(expected), repr(msg)), )
def callback_ButtonRequest(self, msg): self.DEBUG("ButtonRequest code: " + get_buttonrequest_value(msg.code))
self.DEBUG("Pressing button " + str(self.button)) if self.button_wait: self.DEBUG("Waiting %d seconds " % self.button_wait) time.sleep(self.button_wait) self.debug.press_button(self.button) return proto.ButtonAck()
def callback_PinMatrixRequest(self, msg): if self.pin_correct: pin = self.debug.read_pin_encoded() else: pin = "444222" return proto.PinMatrixAck(pin=pin)
def callback_PassphraseRequest(self, msg): self.DEBUG("Provided passphrase: '%s'" % self.passphrase) return proto.PassphraseAck(passphrase=self.passphrase)
def callback_PassphraseStateRequest(self, msg): return proto.PassphraseStateAck()
def callback_WordRequest(self, msg): (word, pos) = self.debug.read_recovery_word() if word != "": return proto.WordAck(word=word) if pos != 0: return proto.WordAck(word=self.mnemonic[pos - 1])
raise RuntimeError("Unexpected call")
class ProtocolMixin(object): VENDORS = ("", "")
def init(self, state=None, args, *kwargs): super(ProtocolMixin, self).init(args, *kwargs) self.state = state self.init_device() self.tx_api = None
def set_tx_api(self, tx_api): self.tx_api = tx_api
def init_device(self): init_msg = proto.Initialize() if self.state is not None: init_msg.state = self.state self.features = tools.expect(proto.Features)( if str(self.features.vendor) not in self.VENDORS: raise RuntimeError("Unsupported device")
@staticmethod def expand_path(n): warnings.warn( "expand_path is deprecated, use tools.parse_path", DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2, ) return tools.parse_path(n)
@tools.expect(proto.Success, field="message") def ping( self, msg, button_protection=False, pin_protection=False, passphrase_protection=False, ): msg = proto.Ping( message=msg, button_protection=button_protection, pin_protection=pin_protection, passphrase_protection=passphrase_protection, ) return
def get_device_id(self): return self.features.device_id
def _prepare_sign_tx(self, inputs, outputs): tx = proto.TransactionType() tx.inputs = inputs tx.outputs = outputs
txes = {None: tx}
for inp in inputs: if inp.prev_hash in txes: continue
if inp.script_type in ( proto.InputScriptType.SPENDP2SHWITNESS, proto.InputScriptType.SPENDWITNESS, ): continue
if not self.tx_api: raise RuntimeError("TX_API not defined")
prev_tx = self.tx_api.get_tx(binascii.hexlify(inp.prev_hash).decode()) txes[inp.prev_hash] = prev_tx
return txes
@tools.expect(proto.Success, field="message") def clear_session(self): return
# Device functionality wipe_device = MovedTo(device.wipe) recovery_device = MovedTo(device.recover) reset_device = MovedTo(device.reset) backup_device = MovedTo(device.backup)
# debugging load_device_by_mnemonic = MovedTo(debuglink.load_device_by_mnemonic) load_device_by_xprv = MovedTo(debuglink.load_device_by_xprv) self_test = MovedTo(debuglink.self_test)
set_u2f_counter = MovedTo(device.set_u2f_counter)
apply_settings = MovedTo(device.apply_settings) apply_flags = MovedTo(device.apply_flags) change_pin = MovedTo(device.change_pin)
# Firmware functionality firmware_update = MovedTo(firmware.update)
# BTC-like functionality get_public_node = MovedTo(btc.get_public_node) get_address = MovedTo(btc.get_address) sign_tx = MovedTo(btc.sign_tx) sign_message = MovedTo(btc.sign_message) verify_message = MovedTo(btc.verify_message)
# CoSi functionality cosi_commit = MovedTo(cosi.commit) cosi_sign = MovedTo(cosi.sign)
# Ethereum functionality ethereum_get_address = MovedTo(ethereum.get_address) ethereum_sign_tx = MovedTo(ethereum.sign_tx) ethereum_sign_message = MovedTo(ethereum.sign_message) ethereum_verify_message = MovedTo(ethereum.verify_message)
# Lisk functionality lisk_get_address = MovedTo(lisk.get_address) lisk_get_public_key = MovedTo(lisk.get_public_key) lisk_sign_message = MovedTo(lisk.sign_message) lisk_verify_message = MovedTo(lisk.verify_message) lisk_sign_tx = MovedTo(lisk.sign_tx)
# NEM functionality nem_get_address = MovedTo(nem.get_address) nem_sign_tx = MovedTo(nem.sign_tx)
# Stellar functionality stellar_get_address = MovedTo(stellar.get_address) stellar_sign_transaction = MovedTo(stellar.sign_tx)
# Miscellaneous cryptographic functionality get_entropy = MovedTo(misc.get_entropy) sign_identity = MovedTo(misc.sign_identity) get_ecdh_session_key = MovedTo(misc.get_ecdh_session_key) encrypt_keyvalue = MovedTo(misc.encrypt_keyvalue) decrypt_keyvalue = MovedTo(misc.decrypt_keyvalue)
class TrezorClient(ProtocolMixin, TextUIMixin, BaseClient): def init(self, transport, args, *kwargs): super().init(transport=transport, args, *kwargs)
class TrezorClientDebugLink(ProtocolMixin, DebugLinkMixin, BaseClient): def init(self, transport, args, *kwargs): super().init(transport=transport, args, *kwargs) Desktop version
submitted by REWADEE25 to u/REWADEE25 [link] [comments]

My first wiki at github /r/Bitcoin

My first wiki at github /Bitcoin submitted by ABitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Proposal: allocate Github issue instead of wiki page to BIP discussion | Sjors Provoost | Nov 03 2017 /r/bitcoin_devlist

Proposal: allocate Github issue instead of wiki page to BIP discussion | Sjors Provoost | Nov 03 2017 /bitcoin_devlist submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

New additions to tailsjoin github: bitcoin core install/config script, and more. Wiki additions coming.

submitted by tailsjoin to joinmarket [link] [comments]

ELI9: /r/Bitcoin

ELI9: /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

If you need help or you're New to roms and emulation these are some tips

First thing first You need an Emulator i suggest RetroArch is a Newbie Friendly good all in one emulator this is a video to how to setup and use ReTrOaRcH
OpenEmu FOR MAC USERS THAT WILL NOT USE RETRO ARCH BECAUSE IT'S NOT ENOUGH LOOKING LIKE MAC UI OR THEY HAVE AN OCD OR something like that it's good anyways ( i didn't use it bc i'm not a mac user )
🕿︎♋︎◻︎◻︎●︎♏︎ ◻︎❒︎□︎♎︎◆︎♍︎⧫︎⬧︎ ♋︎❒︎♏︎ □︎❖︎♏︎❒︎◻︎❒︎♓︎♍︎♏︎♎︎✆︎
and a download Manger
Jdownloader ( download the jar version ) A photo to explain what to download (don't download the .exe version it has an adware in it )
or idm u can trial reset with this
a torrent clients (credits to Piracy wiki)
for mobile ( torrent clients ) [credits to Piracy wiki]
stay away from [credits to Piracy wiki]
second you need sources to download roms these are the best sites + some tips
sites :
No intro romset ( you can download it directly without a torrent you CAN FROM HERE ) (If you don't want to download the whole romset for the system press view content )
AlvRo's Collection
Vimm's Lair
The Eye
GamesTorrents ( of course if u can torrent )
IDK?? A WIKI FOR ROMpacks?????
The Old Megathread idk why u need it
A guy who uploaded some roms but he didn't get attention
ROMstorge ( idk how to use this site )
Another ROMs site
EmulatorGames ( the name is baaaaaaaad )
WoW Roms
Startgame ( wtf is this name )
If u Want to Check if the site is safe go to here and comment ur site url
Tips :
Tip #1 : If you're in a country that hate piracy like USA or Germany ( i think Germany have dmca or something ?? idk ) etc. stay away from torrent and stay away from http sites
( download Https Everywhere extension and enable encrypt all sites eligible option by pressing on the icon of https everywhere ) even if your browser included with it . because it will warn you if the site is http...
Tip #2 : FBI will not raid your house ( because fbi will not waste there time on you )
Tip #3 : https is your best friend because it's encrypted that means if you go to a https roms site
your isp will see (random numbers and letters) .com/.net/.org/.to/.site etc.
Tip #4 : install an adblock i suggest Ublock Origin
Tip #5 : install a pop-up blocker if you have a chromium based browser like Brave, Chrome, New Edge etc. i suggest this ( if you know a better one please give me the link ) poperblocker
Tip #6 The MegaThread is your OTHER BEST FRIEND if you want an rom head to the megathread and press ctrl + F and search ;)
Tip #8 Emulating is Legal but Downloading ROMs is ILEGAL ( OF COURSE IF you're LIVING IN A COUNTRY THAT DMCA IS A HOLY THING ) ;-)
Tip #9 If you're suspicious of a file u can scan it on VirusTotal or Hybird Analysis ( you need to upload the file because it will open it on a vm in there sever ).
Tip #10 I recommend using a controller if you have a xbox controller just connect it to your pc and you're good to go BUT if you have a dualshock controller (ps controller )
use DS4 Windows ( if you have a windows pc ) ( I Know it's the fork bc the og creator stopped working on it in 2016 or somthing like that )
or any other controller .
Tip #11 If you download a rom and it came in .rar .zip .7z .r001( if the rom came with multiple files like .r001 .r002 .r003... you need to extract just a one file) etc. you can use 7-ZIP or Winrar ( don't worry 40 days trial doesn't end ).

Tip #12 if the rom came in this order rom.rar.exe don't think to open it and if you hide the extension file from showing from the file name it will show like rom.rar but it's actually a .exe or .dmg etc.

Tip #13 if you have a linux pc or a mac that doesn't mean you will not get infected even Temple OS have malwares ( if you don't what's a malware is just search )​.
Tip #14 if u tired of link shorters and etc. use universal Bypass
Tip #15 Some good emulators :
Dolphin a wii and gamecube emulator ( check the compatibility list to check if the game work )
Citra 3DS emulator ( check the compatibility list to check if the game work )
BSNES HD beta if u want to play snes games on HD
PCSX2 the best ps2 emulator
EPSXE a little bit old but it's good (ps1)
DON'T use zsnes ( i guy on the comments said that )
RPCS3 PS3 ( check the compatibility list to check if the game work )
Xenia Xbox 360 ( check the compatibility list to check if the game work )
Cemu WiiU Emulator ( check the compatibility list to check if the game work )
a Decryptor for 3ds games if citra won't open the rom HERE
DS DeSmuME (OLD) ( if u have a good ds emulator give me the link pls )
Project64 N64
DOSBox DOS emulator ( check the compatibility list to check if the game work )
IF U HAVE any other emulator pls link it in the comments <3
Tip #16
etc. are NOT SAFE
if you have any other tips share it =)
submitted by real_nyha454 to Roms [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Newcomers FAQ - Please read!

Welcome to the /Bitcoin Sticky FAQ

You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments.
It all started with the release of the release of Satoshi Nakamoto's whitepaper however that will probably go over the head of most readers so we recommend the following videos for a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
Some other great resources include, the Princeton crypto series and James D'Angelo's Bitcoin 101 Blackboard series.
Some excellent writing on Bitcoin's value proposition and future can be found at the Satoshi Nakamoto Institute.
Some Bitcoin statistics can be found here and here. Developer resources can be found here. Peer-reviewed research papers can be found here.
Potential upcoming protocol improvements and scaling resources here and here.
The number of times Bitcoin was declared dead by the media can be found here (LOL!)

Key properties of Bitcoin

Where can I buy bitcoins? and are helpful sites for beginners. You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin (even just a few dollars worth) and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, also check out the bitcoinity exchange resources for a larger list of options for purchases.
Here is a listing of local ATMs. If you would like your paycheck automatically converted to bitcoin use Bitwage.
Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Preev is a useful site that that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".

Securing your bitcoins

With bitcoin you can "Be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use third party companies aka "Bitcoin banks" which will hold the bitcoins for you.
Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email!
2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
Google Auth Authy OTP Auth
Android Android N/A

Watch out for scams

As mentioned above, Bitcoin is decentralized, which by definition means there is no official website or Twitter handle or spokesperson or CEO. However, all money attracts thieves. This combination unfortunately results in scammers running official sounding names or pretending to be an authority on YouTube or social media. Many scammers throughout the years have claimed to be the inventor of Bitcoin. Websites like bitcoin(dot)com and the btc subreddit are active scams. Almost all altcoins (shitcoins) are marketed heavily with big promises but are really just designed to separate you from your bitcoin. So be careful: any resource, including all linked in this document, may in the future turn evil. Don't trust, verify. Also as they say in our community "Not your keys, not your coins".

Where can I spend bitcoins?

Check out spendabit or bitcoin directory for millions of merchant options. Also you can spend bitcoin anywhere visa is accepted with bitcoin debit cards such as the CashApp card. Some other useful site are listed below.
Store Product
Gyft Gift cards for hundreds of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, Lowes, Home Depot, iTunes, Best Buy, Sears, Kohls, eBay, GameStop, etc.
Spendabit, Overstock and The Bitcoin Directory Retail shopping with millions of results
ShakePay Generate one time use Visa cards in seconds
NewEgg and Dell For all your electronics needs, Coinbills, Piixpay,, Bylls,, Bitrefill, LivingRoomofSatoshi, Coinsfer, and more Bill payment
Menufy, Takeaway and Thuisbezorgd NL Takeout delivered to your door
Expedia, Cheapair, Destinia, Abitsky, SkyTours, the Travel category on Gyft and 9flats For when you need to get away
Cryptostorm, Mullvad, and PIA VPN services
Namecheap, Porkbun Domain name registration
Stampnik Discounted USPS Priority, Express, First-Class mail postage
Coinmap and AirBitz are helpful to find local businesses accepting bitcoins. A good resource for UK residents is at
There are also lots of charities which accept bitcoin donations.

Merchant Resources

There are several benefits to accepting bitcoin as a payment option if you are a merchant;
If you are interested in accepting bitcoin as a payment method, there are several options available;

Can I mine bitcoin?

Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out.
If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. If you would prefer to keep it simple there are several good options. You can view the global node distribution here.

Earning bitcoins

Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
Site Description
WorkingForBitcoins, Bitwage, Cryptogrind, Coinality, Bitgigs, /Jobs4Bitcoins, BitforTip, Rein Project Freelancing
Lolli Earn bitcoin when you shop online!
OpenBazaar,, Bitify, /Bitmarket, 21 Market Marketplaces
/GirlsGoneBitcoin NSFW Adult services
A-ads, Advertising
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker on JoinMarket by allowing users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins.

Bitcoin-Related Projects

The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
Project Description
Lightning Network Second layer scaling
Blockstream, Rootstock and Drivechain Sidechains
Hivemind and Augur Prediction markets
Tierion and Factom Records & Titles on the blockchain
BitMarkets, DropZone, Beaver and Open Bazaar Decentralized markets
JoinMarket and Wasabi Wallet CoinJoin implementation
Coinffeine and Bisq Decentralized bitcoin exchanges
Keybase Identity & Reputation management
Abra Global P2P money transmitter network
Bitcore Open source Bitcoin javascript library

Bitcoin Units

One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
Unit Symbol Value Info
bitcoin BTC 1 bitcoin one bitcoin is equal to 100 million satoshis
millibitcoin mBTC 1,000 per bitcoin used as default unit in recent Electrum wallet releases
bit bit 1,000,000 per bitcoin colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin (μBTC)
satoshi sat 100,000,000 per bitcoin smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $10000 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki.
Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit.
Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval.
Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
submitted by BitcoinFan7 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[HALVING MEGATHREAD] Block 630000 has been mined. Mining subsidy is now 6.25 BTC per block. The third Bitcoin Halving is now complete!

As of now, 630,000 blocks have been mined on the Bitcoin network, and the block reward has successfully halved for the second THIRD time. The previous block reward was 12.5 BTC, and the new block reward is now 6.25 BTC. Since the previous halving at Block 420000, monetary inflation decreased from 4.17%% to 3.57%. Block 630000 signals an immediate 50% reduction to 1.79%. The next halving will occur at Block 840000 in approximately four years. Godspeed, Bitcoin!
Here's Block 630000 in all its glory!
{ "hash": "000000000000000000024bead8df69990852c202db0e0097c1a12ea637d7e96d", "confirmations": "1", "strippedsize": "1186930", "weight": "3993250", "height": "630000", "version": "536870912", "merkleroot": "b191f5f973b9040e81c4f75f99c7e43c92010ba8654718e3dd1a4800851d300d", "tx": "3134", "time": "1589225023", "nonce": "2302182970", "bits": "387021369", "difficulty": "16104807485529", "previousblockhash": "0000000000000000000d656be18bb095db1b23bd797266b0ac3ba720b1962b1e", } 
coinbase transaction: 6.25 BTC + 0.90968084 BTC in fees
block size: 1186.93 KB
transactions: 3134
total bitcoins: 18,375,000
remaining bitcoins: ~2,625,000
previous halving: 3 years 10 months 2 days 2 hours 37 minutes 30 seconds ago
[Monetary Inflation Chart] [Controlled Supply] [Bitcoin Clock]
[] [] [] [] [] []
submitted by BashCo to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal

Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal

Dragonchain Public Proposal TL;DR:

Dragonchain has demonstrated twice Reddit’s entire total daily volume (votes, comments, and posts per Reddit 2019 Year in Review) in a 24-hour demo on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. At the time, in January 2020, the entire cost of the demo was approximately $25K on a single system (transaction fees locked at $0.0001/txn). With current fees (lowest fee $0.0000025/txn), this would cost as little as $625.
Watch Joe walk through the entire proposal and answer questions on YouTube.
This proposal is also available on the Dragonchain blog.

Hello Reddit and Ethereum community!

I’m Joe Roets, Founder & CEO of Dragonchain. When the team and I first heard about The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off we were intrigued. We believe we have the solutions Reddit seeks for its community points system and we have them at scale.
For your consideration, we have submitted our proposal below. The team at Dragonchain and I welcome and look forward to your technical questions, philosophical feedback, and fair criticism, to build a scaling solution for Reddit that will empower its users. Because our architecture is unlike other blockchain platforms out there today, we expect to receive many questions while people try to grasp our project. I will answer all questions here in this thread on Reddit, and I've answered some questions in the stream on YouTube.
We have seen good discussions so far in the competition. We hope that Reddit’s scaling solution will emerge from The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off and that Reddit will have great success with the implementation.

Executive summary

Dragonchain is a robust open source hybrid blockchain platform that has proven to withstand the passing of time since our inception in 2014. We have continued to evolve to harness the scalability of private nodes, yet take full advantage of the security of public decentralized networks, like Ethereum. We have a live, operational, and fully functional Interchain network integrating Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and ~700 independent Dragonchain nodes. Every transaction is secured to Ethereum, Bitcoin, and Ethereum Classic. Transactions are immediately usable on chain, and the first decentralization is seen within 20 seconds on Dragon Net. Security increases further to public networks ETH, BTC, and ETC within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Smart contracts can be written in any executable language, offering full freedom to existing developers. We invite any developer to watch the demo, play with our SDK’s, review open source code, and to help us move forward. Dragonchain specializes in scalable loyalty & rewards solutions and has built a decentralized social network on chain, with very affordable transaction costs. This experience can be combined with the insights Reddit and the Ethereum community have gained in the past couple of months to roll out the solution at a rapid pace.

Response and PoC

In The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off post, Reddit has asked for a series of demonstrations, requirements, and other considerations. In this section, we will attempt to answer all of these requests.

Live Demo

A live proof of concept showing hundreds of thousands of transactions
On Jan 7, 2020, Dragonchain hosted a 24-hour live demonstration during which a quarter of a billion (250 million+) transactions executed fully on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. This means that every single transaction is secured by, and traceable to these networks. An attack on this system would require a simultaneous attack on all of the Interchained networks.
24 hours in 4 minutes (YouTube):
24 hours in 4 minutes
The demonstration was of a single business system, and any user is able to scale this further, by running multiple systems simultaneously. Our goals for the event were to demonstrate a consistent capacity greater than that of Visa over an extended time period.
Tooling to reproduce our demo is available here:

Source Code

Source code (for on & off-chain components as well tooling used for the PoC). The source code does not have to be shared publicly, but if Reddit decides to use a particular solution it will need to be shared with Reddit at some point.


How it works & scales

Architectural Scaling

Dragonchain’s architecture attacks the scalability issue from multiple angles. Dragonchain is a hybrid blockchain platform, wherein every transaction is protected on a business node to the requirements of that business or purpose. A business node may be held completely private or may be exposed or replicated to any level of exposure desired.
Every node has its own blockchain and is independently scalable. Dragonchain established Context Based Verification as its consensus model. Every transaction is immediately usable on a trust basis, and in time is provable to an increasing level of decentralized consensus. A transaction will have a level of decentralization to independently owned and deployed Dragonchain nodes (~700 nodes) within seconds, and full decentralization to BTC and ETH within minutes or hours. Level 5 nodes (Interchain nodes) function to secure all transactions to public or otherwise external chains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. These nodes scale the system by aggregating multiple blocks into a single Interchain transaction on a cadence. This timing is configurable based upon average fees for each respective chain. For detailed information about Dragonchain’s architecture, and Context Based Verification, please refer to the Dragonchain Architecture Document.

Economic Scaling

An interesting feature of Dragonchain’s network consensus is its economics and scarcity model. Since Dragon Net nodes (L2-L4) are independent staking nodes, deployment to cloud platforms would allow any of these nodes to scale to take on a large percentage of the verification work. This is great for scalability, but not good for the economy, because there is no scarcity, and pricing would develop a downward spiral and result in fewer verification nodes. For this reason, Dragonchain uses TIME as scarcity.
TIME is calculated as the number of Dragons held, multiplied by the number of days held. TIME influences the user’s access to features within the Dragonchain ecosystem. It takes into account both the Dragon balance and length of time each Dragon is held. TIME is staked by users against every verification node and dictates how much of the transaction fees are awarded to each participating node for every block.
TIME also dictates the transaction fee itself for the business node. TIME is staked against a business node to set a deterministic transaction fee level (see transaction fee table below in Cost section). This is very interesting in a discussion about scaling because it guarantees independence for business implementation. No matter how much traffic appears on the entire network, a business is guaranteed to not see an increased transaction fee rate.

Scaled Deployment

Dragonchain uses Docker and Kubernetes to allow the use of best practices traditional system scaling. Dragonchain offers managed nodes with an easy to use web based console interface. The user may also deploy a Dragonchain node within their own datacenter or favorite cloud platform. Users have deployed Dragonchain nodes on-prem on Amazon AWS, Google Cloud, MS Azure, and other hosting platforms around the world. Any executable code, anything you can write, can be written into a smart contract. This flexibility is what allows us to say that developers with no blockchain experience can use any code language to access the benefits of blockchain. Customers have used NodeJS, Python, Java, and even BASH shell script to write smart contracts on Dragonchain.
With Docker containers, we achieve better separation of concerns, faster deployment, higher reliability, and lower response times.
We chose Kubernetes for its self-healing features, ability to run multiple services on one server, and its large and thriving development community. It is resilient, scalable, and automated. OpenFaaS allows us to package smart contracts as Docker images for easy deployment.
Contract deployment time is now bounded only by the size of the Docker image being deployed but remains fast even for reasonably large images. We also take advantage of Docker’s flexibility and its ability to support any language that can run on x86 architecture. Any image, public or private, can be run as a smart contract using Dragonchain.

Flexibility in Scaling

Dragonchain’s architecture considers interoperability and integration as key features. From inception, we had a goal to increase adoption via integration with real business use cases and traditional systems.
We envision the ability for Reddit, in the future, to be able to integrate alternate content storage platforms or other financial services along with the token.
  • LBRY - To allow users to deploy content natively to LBRY
  • MakerDAO to allow users to lend small amounts backed by their Reddit community points.
  • STORJ/SIA to allow decentralized on chain storage of portions of content. These integrations or any other are relatively easy to integrate on Dragonchain with an Interchain implementation.


Cost estimates (on-chain and off-chain) For the purpose of this proposal, we assume that all transactions are on chain (posts, replies, and votes).
On the Dragonchain network, transaction costs are deterministic/predictable. By staking TIME on the business node (as described above) Reddit can reduce transaction costs to as low as $0.0000025 per transaction.
Dragonchain Fees Table

Getting Started

How to run it
Building on Dragonchain is simple and requires no blockchain experience. Spin up a business node (L1) in our managed environment (AWS), run it in your own cloud environment, or on-prem in your own datacenter. Clear documentation will walk you through the steps of spinning up your first Dragonchain Level 1 Business node.
Getting started is easy...
  1. Download Dragonchain’s dctl
  2. Input three commands into a terminal
  3. Build an image
  4. Run it
More information can be found in our Get started documents.

Dragonchain is an open source hybrid platform. Through Dragon Net, each chain combines the power of a public blockchain (like Ethereum) with the privacy of a private blockchain.
Dragonchain organizes its network into five separate levels. A Level 1, or business node, is a totally private blockchain only accessible through the use of public/private keypairs. All business logic, including smart contracts, can be executed on this node directly and added to the chain.
After creating a block, the Level 1 business node broadcasts a version stripped of sensitive private data to Dragon Net. Three Level 2 Validating nodes validate the transaction based on guidelines determined from the business. A Level 3 Diversity node checks that the level 2 nodes are from a diverse array of locations. A Level 4 Notary node, hosted by a KYC partner, then signs the validation record received from the Level 3 node. The transaction hash is ledgered to the Level 5 public chain to take advantage of the hash power of massive public networks.
Dragon Net can be thought of as a “blockchain of blockchains”, where every level is a complete private blockchain. Because an L1 can send to multiple nodes on a single level, proof of existence is distributed among many places in the network. Eventually, proof of existence reaches level 5 and is published on a public network.

API Documentation

APIs (on chain & off)

SDK Source

Nobody’s Perfect

Known issues or tradeoffs
  • Dragonchain is open source and even though the platform is easy enough for developers to code in any language they are comfortable with, we do not have so large a developer community as Ethereum. We would like to see the Ethereum developer community (and any other communities) become familiar with our SDK’s, our solutions, and our platform, to unlock the full potential of our Ethereum Interchain. Long ago we decided to prioritize both Bitcoin and Ethereum Interchains. We envision an ecosystem that encompasses different projects to give developers the ability to take full advantage of all the opportunities blockchain offers to create decentralized solutions not only for Reddit but for all of our current platforms and systems. We believe that together we will take the adoption of blockchain further. We currently have additional Interchain with Ethereum Classic. We look forward to Interchain with other blockchains in the future. We invite all blockchains projects who believe in decentralization and security to Interchain with Dragonchain.
  • While we only have 700 nodes compared to 8,000 Ethereum and 10,000 Bitcoin nodes. We harness those 18,000 nodes to scale to extremely high levels of security. See Dragonchain metrics.
  • Some may consider the centralization of Dragonchain’s business nodes as an issue at first glance, however, the model is by design to protect business data. We do not consider this a drawback as these nodes can make any, none, or all data public. Depending upon the implementation, every subreddit could have control of its own business node, for potential business and enterprise offerings, bringing new alternative revenue streams to Reddit.

Costs and resources

Summary of cost & resource information for both on-chain & off-chain components used in the PoC, as well as cost & resource estimates for further scaling. If your PoC is not on mainnet, make note of any mainnet caveats (such as congestion issues).
Every transaction on the PoC system had a transaction fee of $0.0001 (one-hundredth of a cent USD). At 256MM transactions, the demo cost $25,600. With current operational fees, the same demonstration would cost $640 USD.
For the demonstration, to achieve throughput to mimic a worldwide payments network, we modeled several clients in AWS and 4-5 business nodes to handle the traffic. The business nodes were tuned to handle higher throughput by adjusting memory and machine footprint on AWS. This flexibility is valuable to implementing a system such as envisioned by Reddit. Given that Reddit’s daily traffic (posts, replies, and votes) is less than half that of our demo, we would expect that the entire Reddit system could be handled on 2-5 business nodes using right-sized containers on AWS or similar environments.
Verification was accomplished on the operational Dragon Net network with over 700 independently owned verification nodes running around the world at no cost to the business other than paid transaction fees.



This PoC should scale to the numbers below with minimal costs (both on & off-chain). There should also be a clear path to supporting hundreds of millions of users.
Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle:
*100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points) *25,000 subscriptions *75,000 one-off points burning *100,000 transfers
During Dragonchain’s 24 hour demo, the above required numbers were reached within the first few minutes.
Reddit’s total activity is 9000% more than Ethereum’s total transaction level. Even if you do not include votes, it is still 700% more than Ethereum’s current volume. Dragonchain has demonstrated that it can handle 250 million transactions a day, and it’s architecture allows for multiple systems to work at that level simultaneously. In our PoC, we demonstrate double the full capacity of Reddit, and every transaction was proven all the way to Bitcoin and Ethereum.
Reddit Scaling on Ethereum


Solutions should not depend on any single third-party provider. We prefer solutions that do not depend on specific entities such as Reddit or another provider, and solutions with no single point of control or failure in off-chain components but recognize there are numerous trade-offs to consider
Dragonchain’s architecture calls for a hybrid approach. Private business nodes hold the sensitive data while the validation and verification of transactions for the business are decentralized within seconds and secured to public blockchains within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Nodes could potentially be controlled by owners of individual subreddits for more organic decentralization.
  • Billing is currently centralized - there is a path to federation and decentralization of a scaled billing solution.
  • Operational multi-cloud
  • Operational on-premises capabilities
  • Operational deployment to any datacenter
  • Over 700 independent Community Verification Nodes with proof of ownership
  • Operational Interchain (Interoperable to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Ethereum Classic, open to more)

Usability Scaling solutions should have a simple end user experience.

Users shouldn't have to maintain any extra state/proofs, regularly monitor activity, keep track of extra keys, or sign anything other than their normal transactions
Dragonchain and its customers have demonstrated extraordinary usability as a feature in many applications, where users do not need to know that the system is backed by a live blockchain. Lyceum is one of these examples, where the progress of academy courses is being tracked, and successful completion of courses is rewarded with certificates on chain. Our @Save_The_Tweet bot is popular on Twitter. When used with one of the following hashtags - #please, #blockchain, #ThankYou, or #eternalize the tweet is saved through Eternal to multiple blockchains. A proof report is available for future reference. Other examples in use are DEN, our decentralized social media platform, and our console, where users can track their node rewards, view their TIME, and operate a business node.

Transactions complete in a reasonable amount of time (seconds or minutes, not hours or days)
All transactions are immediately usable on chain by the system. A transaction begins the path to decentralization at the conclusion of a 5-second block when it gets distributed across 5 separate community run nodes. Full decentralization occurs within 10 minutes to 2 hours depending on which interchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, or Ethereum Classic) the transaction hits first. Within approximately 2 hours, the combined hash power of all interchained blockchains secures the transaction.

Free to use for end users (no gas fees, or fixed/minimal fees that Reddit can pay on their behalf)
With transaction pricing as low as $0.0000025 per transaction, it may be considered reasonable for Reddit to cover transaction fees for users.
All of Reddit's Transactions on Blockchain (month)
Community points can be earned by users and distributed directly to their Reddit account in batch (as per Reddit minting plan), and allow users to withdraw rewards to their Ethereum wallet whenever they wish. Withdrawal fees can be paid by either user or Reddit. This model has been operating inside the Dragonchain system since 2018, and many security and financial compliance features can be optionally added. We feel that this capability greatly enhances user experience because it is seamless to a regular user without cryptocurrency experience, yet flexible to a tech savvy user. With regard to currency or token transactions, these would occur on the Reddit network, verified to BTC and ETH. These transactions would incur the $0.0000025 transaction fee. To estimate this fee we use the monthly active Reddit users statista with a 60% adoption rate and an estimated 10 transactions per month average resulting in an approximate $720 cost across the system. Reddit could feasibly incur all associated internal network charges (mining/minting, transfer, burn) as these are very low and controllable fees.
Reddit Internal Token Transaction Fees

Reddit Ethereum Token Transaction Fees
When we consider further the Ethereum fees that might be incurred, we have a few choices for a solution.
  1. Offload all Ethereum transaction fees (user withdrawals) to interested users as they wish to withdraw tokens for external use or sale.
  2. Cover Ethereum transaction fees by aggregating them on a timed schedule. Users would request withdrawal (from Reddit or individual subreddits), and they would be transacted on the Ethereum network every hour (or some other schedule).
  3. In a combination of the above, customers could cover aggregated fees.
  4. Integrate with alternate Ethereum roll up solutions or other proposals to aggregate minting and distribution transactions onto Ethereum.

Bonus Points

Users should be able to view their balances & transactions via a blockchain explorer-style interface
From interfaces for users who have no knowledge of blockchain technology to users who are well versed in blockchain terms such as those present in a typical block explorer, a system powered by Dragonchain has flexibility on how to provide balances and transaction data to users. Transactions can be made viewable in an Eternal Proof Report, which displays raw data along with TIME staking information and traceability all the way to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and every other Interchained network. The report shows fields such as transaction ID, timestamp, block ID, multiple verifications, and Interchain proof. See example here.
Node payouts within the Dragonchain console are listed in chronological order and can be further seen in either Dragons or USD. See example here.
In our social media platform, Dragon Den, users can see, in real-time, their NRG and MTR balances. See example here.
A new influencer app powered by Dragonchain, Raiinmaker, breaks down data into a user friendly interface that shows coin portfolio, redeemed rewards, and social scores per campaign. See example here.

Exiting is fast & simple
Withdrawing funds on Dragonchain’s console requires three clicks, however, withdrawal scenarios with more enhanced security features per Reddit’s discretion are obtainable.

Interoperability Compatibility with third party apps (wallets/contracts/etc) is necessary.
Proven interoperability at scale that surpasses the required specifications. Our entire platform consists of interoperable blockchains connected to each other and traditional systems. APIs are well documented. Third party permissions are possible with a simple smart contract without the end user being aware. No need to learn any specialized proprietary language. Any code base (not subsets) is usable within a Docker container. Interoperable with any blockchain or traditional APIs. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js. Please see our source code and API documentation.

Scaling solutions should be extensible and allow third parties to build on top of it Open source and extensible
APIs should be well documented and stable

Documentation should be clear and complete
For full documentation, explore our docs, SDK’s, Github repo’s, architecture documents, original Disney documentation, and other links or resources provided in this proposal.

Third-party permissionless integrations should be possible & straightforward Smart contracts are Docker based, can be written in any language, use full language (not subsets), and can therefore be integrated with any system including traditional system APIs. Simple is better. Learning an uncommon or proprietary language should not be necessary.
Advanced knowledge of mathematics, cryptography, or L2 scaling should not be required. Compatibility with common utilities & toolchains is expected.
Dragonchain business nodes and smart contracts leverage Docker to allow the use of literally any language or executable code. No proprietary language is necessary. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js.


Bonus Points: Show us how it works. Do you have an idea for a cool new use case for Community Points? Build it!


Community points could be awarded to Reddit users based upon TIME too, whereas the longer someone is part of a subreddit, the more community points someone naturally gained, even if not actively commenting or sharing new posts. A daily login could be required for these community points to be credited. This grants awards to readers too and incentivizes readers to create an account on Reddit if they browse the website often. This concept could also be leveraged to provide some level of reputation based upon duration and consistency of contribution to a community subreddit.

Dragon Den

Dragonchain has already built a social media platform that harnesses community involvement. Dragon Den is a decentralized community built on the Dragonchain blockchain platform. Dragon Den is Dragonchain’s answer to fake news, trolling, and censorship. It incentivizes the creation and evaluation of quality content within communities. It could be described as being a shareholder of a subreddit or Reddit in its entirety. The more your subreddit is thriving, the more rewarding it will be. Den is currently in a public beta and in active development, though the real token economy is not live yet. There are different tokens for various purposes. Two tokens are Lair Ownership Rights (LOR) and Lair Ownership Tokens (LOT). LOT is a non-fungible token for ownership of a specific Lair. LOT will only be created and converted from LOR.
Energy (NRG) and Matter (MTR) work jointly. Your MTR determines how much NRG you receive in a 24-hour period. Providing quality content, or evaluating content will earn MTR.

Security. Users have full ownership & control of their points.
All community points awarded based upon any type of activity or gift, are secured and provable to all Interchain networks (currently BTC, ETH, ETC). Users are free to spend and withdraw their points as they please, depending on the features Reddit wants to bring into production.

Balances and transactions cannot be forged, manipulated, or blocked by Reddit or anyone else
Users can withdraw their balance to their ERC20 wallet, directly through Reddit. Reddit can cover the fees on their behalf, or the user covers this with a portion of their balance.

Users should own their points and be able to get on-chain ERC20 tokens without permission from anyone else
Through our console users can withdraw their ERC20 rewards. This can be achieved on Reddit too. Here is a walkthrough of our console, though this does not show the quick withdrawal functionality, a user can withdraw at any time.

Points should be recoverable to on-chain ERC20 tokens even if all third-parties involved go offline
If necessary, signed transactions from the Reddit system (e.g. Reddit + Subreddit) can be sent to the Ethereum smart contract for minting.

A public, third-party review attesting to the soundness of the design should be available
To our knowledge, at least two large corporations, including a top 3 accounting firm, have conducted positive reviews. These reviews have never been made public, as Dragonchain did not pay or contract for these studies to be released.

Bonus points
Public, third-party implementation review available or in progress
See above

Compatibility with HSMs & hardware wallets
For the purpose of this proposal, all tokenization would be on the Ethereum network using standard token contracts and as such, would be able to leverage all hardware wallet and Ethereum ecosystem services.

Other Considerations

Minting/distributing tokens is not performed by Reddit directly
This operation can be automated by smart contract on Ethereum. Subreddits can if desired have a role to play.

One off point burning, as well as recurring, non-interactive point burning (for subreddit memberships) should be possible and scalable
This is possible and scalable with interaction between Dragonchain Reddit system and Ethereum token contract(s).

Fully open-source solutions are strongly preferred
Dragonchain is fully open source (see section on Disney release after conclusion).


Whether it is today, or in the future, we would like to work together to bring secure flexibility to the highest standards. It is our hope to be considered by Ethereum, Reddit, and other integrative solutions so we may further discuss the possibilities of implementation. In our public demonstration, 256 million transactions were handled in our operational network on chain in 24 hours, for the low cost of $25K, which if run today would cost $625. Dragonchain’s interoperable foundation provides the atmosphere necessary to implement a frictionless community points system. Thank you for your consideration of our proposal. We look forward to working with the community to make something great!

Disney Releases Blockchain Platform as Open Source

The team at Disney created the Disney Private Blockchain Platform. The system was a hybrid interoperable blockchain platform for ledgering and smart contract development geared toward solving problems with blockchain adoption and usability. All objective evaluation would consider the team’s output a success. We released a list of use cases that we explored in some capacity at Disney, and our input on blockchain standardization as part of our participation in the W3C Blockchain Community Group.

Open Source

In 2016, Roets proposed to release the platform as open source to spread the technology outside of Disney, as others within the W3C group were interested in the solutions that had been created inside of Disney.
Following a long process, step by step, the team met requirements for release. Among the requirements, the team had to:
  • Obtain VP support and approval for the release
  • Verify ownership of the software to be released
  • Verify that no proprietary content would be released
  • Convince the organization that there was a value to the open source community
  • Convince the organization that there was a value to Disney
  • Offer the plan for ongoing maintenance of the project outside of Disney
  • Itemize competing projects
  • Verify no conflict of interest
  • Preferred license
  • Change the project name to not use the name Disney, any Disney character, or any other associated IP - proposed Dragonchain - approved
  • Obtain legal approval
  • Approval from corporate, parks, and other business units
  • Approval from multiple Disney patent groups Copyright holder defined by Disney (Disney Connected and Advanced Technologies)
  • Trademark searches conducted for the selected name Dragonchain
  • Obtain IT security approval
  • Manual review of OSS components conducted
  • OWASP Dependency and Vulnerability Check Conducted
  • Obtain technical (software) approval
  • Offer management, process, and financial plans for the maintenance of the project.
  • Meet list of items to be addressed before release
  • Remove all Disney project references and scripts
  • Create a public distribution list for email communications
  • Remove Roets’ direct and internal contact information
  • Create public Slack channel and move from Disney slack channels
  • Create proper labels for issue tracking
  • Rename internal private Github repository
  • Add informative description to Github page
  • Expand with more specific information
  • Add information beyond current “Blockchains are Magic”
  • Add getting started sections and info on cloning/forking the project
  • Add installation details
  • Add uninstall process
  • Add unit, functional, and integration test information
  • Detail how to contribute and get involved
  • Describe the git workflow that the project will use
  • Move to public, non-Disney git repository (Github or Bitbucket)
  • Obtain Disney Open Source Committee approval for release
On top of meeting the above criteria, as part of the process, the maintainer of the project had to receive the codebase on their own personal email and create accounts for maintenance (e.g. Github) with non-Disney accounts. Given the fact that the project spanned multiple business units, Roets was individually responsible for its ongoing maintenance. Because of this, he proposed in the open source application to create a non-profit organization to hold the IP and maintain the project. This was approved by Disney.
The Disney Open Source Committee approved the application known as OSSRELEASE-10, and the code was released on October 2, 2016. Disney decided to not issue a press release.
Original OSSRELASE-10 document

Dragonchain Foundation

The Dragonchain Foundation was created on January 17, 2017.
submitted by j0j0r0 to ethereum [link] [comments]

Tron v11.1.3 (2020-08-20) // Minor updates; Remove PCHunter due to A/V false positives


Tron is a script that "fights for the User."
It aims to automate ~87% of the tedious work in getting a badly-running Windows system back on its feet (clicking "next" in a/v scan windows, etc); with much left to the discretion of the tech.
It is built with heavy reliance on community input and updated regularly.
It is NOT a system optimization or "baseline" script.
Read the instructions.

Sequence of operation

Prep > Tempclean > De-bloat > Disinfect > Repair > Patch > Optimize > Wrap-up | Manual tools
Saves a log to C:\logs\tron\tron.log (configurable).
screenshots of Tron in action


(significant changes in bold; full changelog on Github)
v11.1.3 (2020-08-20)
- Removed PCHunter utility (extra utility, Tron never ran PCHunter) due to false positives with many A/V engines
. Minor definition updates


  1. Primary method: Download the .torrent.
  2. Secondary: Download a self-extracting .exe pack from one of the mirrors:
    Mirror HTTPS HTTP Location Host
    Official link link US-DC u/SGC-Hosting
    #1 link link US-NY u/danodemano
    #3 link link DE u/bodrino
    #4 link link US/EU u/mxmod
    #5 link --- US-MI u/ajcutshall
    #6 link --- AU u/agent-squirrel
    #7 link --- GB-LND u/FreezerMoosh
    #8 link --- US-MO u/OlderGeeks
    #9 link --- Amazon CDN u/helpdesktv
    #10 link --- Global CDN Softpedia
  3. Tertiary: Connect to the Syncthing repo (instructions) to get fixes/updates immediately. This method has some risks and you should only use it if you understand them.
  4. Quaternary: Source code
    Source code is available on Github (Note: this doesn't include many of the utilities Tron relies on to function). If you want to view the code without downloading a ~600MB package, Github is a good place to do it.

Command-Line Support

Tron has full command-line support. Switches are optional, can be used simultaneously, and override their respective default when used. See here for a list of command-line switches.

Pack Integrity

SHA-256 hashes are in \tron\integrity_verification\checksums.txt and are signed with my PGP key; included. Use this to verify pack integrity.


Tron will always be free and open-source. If you'd like to buy me a beer or more importantly ... scotch ... you can do so here:
  • Patreon
  • Bitcoin: 1Biw8gx2kD7mZf66ZdNgB9tG1pE9YA3kEd
  • Bitcoin Cash: 18sXTTrAViPZVQtm63zBK6aCK3XfJpEThk
  • Monero (preferred): 4GG9KsJhwcW3zapDw62UaS71ZfFBjH9uwhc8FeyocPhUHHsuxj5zfvpZpZcZFHWpxoXD99MVt6PnR9QfftXDV8s6HbYdDuZEDZ947uiEje
These addresses go directly to u/vocatus. If you wish to support another volunteer (e.g. the incredibly generous u/SGC-Hosting) please contact them directly.

Problems and Support

Please look here first for a list of common issues (Tron appearing to be stalled, etc). If it doesn't answer your issue, make a top-level post to TronScript and myself or one of the community members will look at the issue. Additionally, you can reach me 24/7 on Keybase.
\integrity verification contains checksums.txt and is signed with my PGP key (0x07d1490f82a211a2, pubkey included). Use this to verify the pack.
"Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power to act." -p3:27
submitted by vocatus to TronScript [link] [comments]

Zano Newcomers Introduction/FAQ - please read!

Welcome to the Zano Sticky Introduction/FAQ!
Hopefully any questions you have will be answered by the resources below, but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments. If you're quite technically-minded, the Zano whitepaper gives a thorough overview of Zano's design and its main features.
So, what is Zano? In brief, Zano is a project started by the original developers of CryptoNote. Coins with market caps totalling well over a billion dollars (Monero, Haven, Loki and countless others) run upon the codebase they created. Zano is a continuation of their efforts to create the "perfect money", and brings a wealth of enhancements to their original CryptoNote code.
Development happens at a lightning pace, as the Github activity shows, but Zano is still very much a work-in-progress. Let's cut right to it:
Here's why you should pay attention to Zano over the next 12-18 months. Quoting from a recent update:
Anton Sokolov has recently joined the Zano team. ... For the last months Anton has been working on theoretical work dedicated to log-size ring signatures. These signatures theoretically allows for a logarithmic relationship between the number of decoys and the size/performance of transactions. This means that we can set mixins at a level from up to 1000, keeping the reasonable size and processing speed of transactions. This will take Zano’s privacy to a whole new level, and we believe this technology will turn out to be groundbreaking!
If successful, this scheme will make Zano the most private, powerful and performant CryptoNote implementation on the planet. Bar none. A quantum leap in privacy with a minimal increase in resource usage. And if there's one team capable of pulling it off, it's this one.

What else makes Zano special?

You mean aside from having "the Godfather of CryptoNote" as the project lead? ;) Actually, the calibre of the developers/researchers at Zano probably is the project's single greatest strength. Drawing on years of experience, they've made careful design choices, optimizing performance with an asynchronous core architecture, and flexibility and extensibility with a modular code structure. This means that the developers are able to build and iterate fast, refining features and adding new ones at a rate that makes bigger and better-funded teams look sluggish at best.
Zano also has some unique features that set it apart from similar projects:
Privacy Firstly, if you're familiar with CryptoNote you won't be surprised that Zano transactions are private. The perfect money is fungible, and therefore must be untraceable. Bitcoin, for the most part, does little to hide your transaction data from unscrupulous observers. With Zano, privacy is the default.
The untraceability and unlinkability of Zano transactions come from its use of ring signatures and stealth addresses. What this means is that no outside observer is able to tell if two transactions were sent to the same address, and for each transaction there is a set of possible senders that make it impossible to determine who the real sender is.
Hybrid PoW-PoS consensus mechanism Zano achieves an optimal level of security by utilizing both Proof of Work and Proof of Stake for consensus. By combining the two systems, it mitigates their individual vulnerabilities (see 51% attack and "nothing at stake" problem). For an attack on Zano to have even a remote chance of success the attacker would have to obtain not only a majority of hashing power, but also a majority of the coins involved in staking. The system and its design considerations are discussed at length in the whitepaper.
Aliases Here's a stealth address: ZxDdULdxC7NRFYhCGdxkcTZoEGQoqvbZqcDHj5a7Gad8Y8wZKAGZZmVCUf9AvSPNMK68L8r8JfAfxP4z1GcFQVCS2Jb9wVzoe. I have a hard enough time remembering my phone number. Fortunately, Zano has an alias system that lets you register an address to a human-readable name. (@orsonj if you want to anonymously buy me a coffee)
Multisignature (multisig) refers to requiring multiple keys to authorize a Zano transaction. It has a number of applications, such as dividing up responsibility for a single Zano wallet among multiple parties, or creating backups where loss of a single seed doesn't lead to loss of the wallet.
Multisig and escrow are key components of the planned Decentralized Marketplace (see below), so consideration was given to each of them from the design stages. Thus Zano's multisig, rather than being tagged on at the wallet-level as an afterthought, is part of its its core architecture being incorporated at the protocol level. This base-layer integration means months won't be spent in the future on complicated refactoring efforts in order to integrate multisig into a codebase that wasn't designed for it. Plus, it makes it far easier for third-party developers to include multisig (implemented correctly) in any Zano wallets and applications they create in the future.
(Double Deposit MAD) Escrow
With Zano's escrow service you can create fully customizable p2p contracts that are designed to, once signed by participants, enforce adherence to their conditions in such a way that no trusted third-party escrow agent is required.
The Particl project, aside from a couple of minor differences, uses an escrow scheme that works the same way, so I've borrowed the term they coined ("Double Deposit MAD Escrow") as I think it describes the scheme perfectly. The system requires participants to make additional deposits, which they will forfeit if there is any attempt to act in a way that breaches the terms of the contract. Full details can be found in the Escrow section of the whitepaper.
The usefulness of multisig and the escrow system may not seem obvious at first, but as mentioned before they'll form the backbone of Zano's Decentralized Marketplace service (described in the next section).

What does the future hold for Zano?

The planned upgrade to Zano's privacy, mentioned at the start, is obviously one of the most exciting things the team is working on, but it's not the only thing.
Zano Roadmap
Decentralized Marketplace
From the beginning, the Zano team's goal has been to create the perfect money. And money can't just be some vehicle for speculative investment, money must be used. To that end, the team have created a set of tools to make it as simple as possible for Zano to be integrated into eCommerce platforms. Zano's API’s and plugins are easy to use, allowing even those with very little coding experience to use them in their E-commerce-related ventures. The culmination of this effort will be a full Decentralized Anonymous Marketplace built on top of the Zano blockchain. Rather than being accessed via the wallet, it will act more as a service - Marketplace as a Service (MAAS) - for anyone who wishes to use it. The inclusion of a simple "snippet" of code into a website is all that's needed to become part a global decentralized, trustless and private E-commerce network.
Atomic Swaps
Just as Zano's marketplace will allow you to transact without needing to trust your counterparty, atomic swaps will let you to easily convert between Zano and other cyryptocurrencies without having to trust a third-party service such as a centralized exchange. On top of that, it will also lead to the way to Zano's inclusion in the many decentralized exchange (DEX) services that have emerged in recent years.

Where can I buy Zano?

Zano's currently listed on the following exchanges:
It goes without saying, neither I nor the Zano team work for any of the exchanges or can vouch for their reliability. Use at your own risk and never leave coins on a centralized exchange for longer than necessary. Your keys, your coins!
If you have any old graphics cards lying around(both AMD & NVIDIA), then Zano is also mineable through its unique ProgPowZ algorithm. Here's a guide on how to get started.
Once you have some Zano, you can safely store it in one of the desktop or mobile wallets (available for all major platforms).

How can I support Zano?

Zano has no marketing department, which is why this post has been written by some guy and not the "Chief Growth Engineer @ Zano Enterprises". The hard part is already done: there's a team of world class developers and researchers gathered here. But, at least at the current prices, the team's funds are enough to cover the cost of development and little more. So the job of publicizing the project falls to the community. If you have any experience in community building/growth hacking at another cryptocurrency or open source project, or if you're a Zano holder who would like to ensure the project's long-term success by helping to spread the word, then send me a pm. We need to get organized.
Researchers and developers are also very welcome. Working at the cutting edge of mathematics and cryptography means Zano provides challenging and rewarding work for anyone in those fields. Please contact the project's Community Manager u/Jed_T if you're interested in joining the team.
Social Links:
Discord Server
Telegram Group
Medium blog
I'll do my best to keep this post accurate and up to date. Message me please with any suggested improvements and leave any questions you have below.
Welcome to the Zano community and the new decentralized private economy!
submitted by OrsonJ to Zano [link] [comments]

Official ColossusXT Q3 2020 AMA

Official ColossusXT Q3 2020 AMA
Welcome to the 11th official ColossusXT AMA! It has been an exciting year so far as we move closer to the launch of the Colossus Grid, and it's been interesting to see how COVID19 is affecting the world and the industry. The commitment to ColossusXT has never been stronger as we navigate these uncertain times due to COVID19. I will briefly go over development and business activities and if you have any additional questions about anything mentioned please drop a question in this AMA.
[DEV] As we move forward through Q3 the first thing you can expect is a mandatory wallet update in the coming weeks, this wallet update will allow you to convert your zCOLX back into COLX, along with some other notable features that we will dive into to discuss once the wallet is released. We're getting closer and closer to Armis release and the Colossus Grid release, which will prove to be an exciting time for the community to participate in testing and/or marketing activities.
[BIZ] We recently submitted a Project Pitch regarding ColossusXT to the National Science Foundation and have been invited to submit a full proposal. Should our proposal be accepted by the National Science Foundation we will be awarded 256,000 dollars for additional ColossusXT development, and continue onto Phase 2 proposals which will open up additional opportunities for ColossusXT research partnerships and additional funding opportunities.
This AMA will start on 10 September and end on 30 September.
The team will review and answer your questions no later than 14 October.
Before the AMA begins, everyone from the community can ask questions on this page and upvote/downvote according to your interest.
Please do not reply to other user's questions until the team has answered. Try to be precise with your questions and be polite.
Contest: One person who asks a question will be chosen to receive 100,000 ColossusXT (COLX) and a ColossusXT T-Shirt!

Processing img imldoefxgkm51...
About ColossusXT (COLX):
ColossusXT is an open-source, community-driven, environmentally conscious cryptocurrency, and an alternative to bitcoin that features better anonymity. It allows people to store and invest their wealth in a non-government-controlled currency and make almost instantaneous and completely anonymous transfers with close to zero fees. Colossuscoin V1 was founded as a long-standing, energy-efficient and environmentally friendly digital cryptocurrency and this concept is being continued.
The question format can be seen below:
Q: What is the Colossus Grid?
A: ColossusXT is an anonymous blockchain through obfuscation, along with the utilization of Armis (I2P). These features will protect end-user privacy as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. The Colossus Grid will connect devices in a peer-to-peer network enabling users and applications to rent the cycles and storage of other users’ machines. This marketplace of computing power and storage will exclusively run on COLX currency. These resources will be used to complete tasks requiring any amount of computation time and capacity, or allow end-users to store data anonymously across the COLX decentralized network. Today, such resources are supplied by entities such as centralized cloud providers which are constrained by closed networks, proprietary payment systems, and hard-coded provisioning operations. Any user ranging from a single PC owner to a large data center can share resources through Colossus Grid and get paid in COLX for their contributions. Renters of computing power or storage space, on the other hand, may do so at low prices compared to the usual market prices because they are only using resources that already exist.
Q: Why does your blockchain exist and what makes it unique?
A: ColossusXT exists to provide an energy-efficient method of supercomputing. ColossusXT is unique in many ways. Some coins have one layer of privacy. ColossusXT and the Colossus Grid will utilize two layers of privacy through obfuscation, and Armis (I2P) these will protect users of the Colossus Grid as they utilize grid resources. There are also Masternodes and Proof of Stake which both can contribute to reducing 51% attacks, along with instant transactions and zero-fee transactions. This protection is paramount as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. Grid Computing will have a pivotal role throughout the world, and what this means is that users will begin to experience the Internet as a seamless computational universe. Software applications, databases, sensors, video, and audio streams-all will be reborn as services that live in cyberspace, assembling, and reassembling themselves on the fly to meet the tasks at hand. Once plugged into the grid, a desktop machine will draw computational horsepower from all the other computers on the grid.
Important Information:
Business Plan
What is ColossusXT? (YouTube)
Follow ColossusXT on:
Interested in joining the ColossusXT team?
Contribute to an Idea!
AMA History:
2018 Q1 2018 Q2 2018 Q3 2018 Q4
2019 Q1 2019 Q2 2019 Q3 2019 Q4
2020 Q1 2020 Q2
submitted by PioyPioyPioy to ColossuscoinX [link] [comments]

[Twitter/Clubhouse/News Media?] Silicon Valley v The New York Times: Overpriced Suitcases, Insta Stories, Insular Apps and Bitcoin Bounties

What is Clubhouse?
You know all those stories of people interrupting Zoom calls by spamming the link and getting in? What if that, as a business model. It is still in private beta, has only 1500 users and yet somehow venture capitalists have $12 million invested at a $100 milion dollar valuation in this.
What is Away?
Hardcover suitcases that cost $225 and above. Hipsters seem to like it. "The brand is more than just luggage. It’s about travel." It is treated like a tech company by VCs for some godforsaken reason (it has raised $100 million at a $1.4 billion valuation), and the CEO uses a lot of Lean In rhetoric (female led, inclusive etc.)
How New York Times?
The New York Times has hired a reporter, Taylor Lorenz, specifically for "Internet Culture" i.e. HobbyDrama reporting. (No, seriously, look at the stories she gets to write. For the NYT!)
Pre-Drama Events:
In December 2019, an elaborate investigation was posted by The Verge (not the NYT, important) about the toxic work culture at Away, with the CEO, Steph Corey, calling workers brain dead and firing someone based on chat in an internal private Slack channel called #Hot-Topics "filled with LGBTQ folks and people of color" (from article).
Korey stepped down as CEO in December, with another CEO to be selected. She came back as co-CEO in January because she 'should not have fallen on the sword.'
Course of the Drama:
June 30/July 1: On an Instagram AMA, returned co-CEO Korey answered a question about "women being targeted by the media" (I presume the AMA went in that direction) by talking about media having an incentive to clickbait in the social media era that and women (like her) were targeted because women are supposed to be motherly, ambitious women like Hillary are targeted by the media, some millennial women who work in the media forgo their ethics to advance their career because old media ethics are being eroded.
The Verge investigation was done by Zoë Schiffer, a “millennial woman.”
Incensed by this, Lorenz posts the IG pics on twitter (previous link from her) and speculates that this AMA exists because of a piece on the disgracing of the “girlboss” stereotype. To recap, neither the original story, nor the Atlantic op-ed were written by her.
Techbros start sharing the same pics of the AMA as a balanced perspective.
Until this point, #bothsides, let them fight, etc.
Enter Balaji Srinivasan. Here is a pompous bio.
He starts attacking Lorenz (again, not the writer of any of the stories). Lorenz says the guy has been obsessively attacking her for quite some time on Clubhouse gussied up public Webex calls (in tweets after the linked tweet).
Then anti-Lorenz sockpuppet accounts start being created to attack her.
An elaborate website is linked by the accounts, specifically to attack her. (Click the link, it is deranged as all hell.)
Taylor asks Ben Horowitz (of multi-billion dollar Andreessen Horowitz, where Balaji has worked before) to get him to stop. Gets blocked.
Then the Andreessen Horowitz batch have a conversation on Clubhouse Discord without texting with Lorenz. After Taylor leaves, (this part leaked to Vice, so you can go listen) Ben Horowitz’ wife, Felicia says that Taylor is playing the “woman card to defend herself.” Balaji implies that she may be “afraid of a brown man.”
And then the conversations ascend:
”the entire tech press was complicit in covering up the threat of COVID-19,”
relying on the press is “outsourcing your information supply chain to folks who are disaligned with you,”
”Media corporations are not the free press, any more than chain restaurants are food “
“why does press have a right to investigate private companies, let the market decide, I don’t understand who gives them that right” (Note: Probably from another conversation by some CEO)
Also something about Github, VC funding and Blockchains being a better model for journalism. (Bitconeeeect!!)
Then Vice reports on it.
Tech media rallies around Taylor [retweets on her twitter]. Glenn Greenwald pokes his nose and says otherwise, because Greenwald.
VCs support their own (along with MC Hammer?? because he’s also on Clubhouse the conference calls you join “for fun” app? So is Oprah???), with opinions like
I’ve never met a VC more powerful than a journalist. One can block me from accessing capital. The other has controlled the narrative / perception of my entire race for decades.
And other nuclear fucking takes retweeted by Felicia Horowitz
And Balaji?
When reached for comment, Balaji claims recording it was illegal (which, idk, haven’t seen the Terms of Service, only 1500 people can use Clubhouse the Twitch app, but you don’t have video and chat has audio)
And then he announces a $1000 bounty for memes and analysis of this event.
(paid in Bitcoin, obviously, this whole scenario is a damn meme)
This gets the creator of Ruby on Rails/Basecamp to defect to the media’s side
Aftermath? (This is a current story):
VCs (like Paul Graham) declare that the media hates them because they are losing power
Media Twitter decides VC Twitter is trying to reanimate the corpse of #GamerGate
Steph Korey, the instigator of this spiraling nonsense? Away says she has decided to step down (redux) because an employee revolt over her IG post.
(Recap: Away sells hardcases to hypebeasts. They are worth a billion because of VCs)
Balaji, rich VC guy, has memes on his timeline?
[Elon Musk has not weighed in yet, if you are curious]
submitted by runnerx4 to HobbyDrama [link] [comments]

Best method for longterm cold storage

I've seen previous posts on longterm cold storage recommending the Tordl Wallet Protocols ( and while they do look good they're quite complicated.
So I want to ask, what's the general consensus for the best method for longterm cold storage?
So far it seems that several multisig wallets is the general view, but from my research it seems like that introduces various undesirable complexities (eg. how would someone non-technical restore the wallets in an emergency?). Would you have to create all the wallets using offline hardware (eg. several Coldcards?)
Glacier, Yeti? All these seem a bit too complicated compared to how things used to be
eg. an encrypted paper wallet or a split wallet using Shamir's Secret Sharing, which apparently isn't recommended any more for some reason.
Any advice?
submitted by boyber to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Core Upgrades

Hello 👋
2 Quick questions:
  1. Being talked about as a "big" update and Particl has always been up to date with Bitcoin Core's codebase... just checking to see if the potential Implementation of BIP 340-342 (Schnortaproot/tapscript; upgrade will be easily done and not unduly affect Particl's PART and/or marketplace?
  2. Does anyone know of a site that tracks which coin's codebases have upgraded to specific Bitcoin Core upgrades? Particl currently on Bitcoin Core 0.20.1
Thank you 🙂
submitted by chdftyl to Particl [link] [comments]

[OFFER] 10-30 second ad on my podcast - $4

This is my podcast - all the links for where to listen are there. I read SCP articles from the SCP wiki.
Episodes release every Wednesday and every other Sunday (7 episodes planned in October). I have a total of 25k downloads, 7.1k in August and 11.3k this September.
You can either provide me the audio file or I can record it. Your ad will be automatically inserted into all my episodes; the cost for 2 weeks will be $4 (negotiable). Your choice for before or after the episode. Discount if you want to promote a podcast.
Payment- Paypal preferred, or Bitcoin
submitted by ea_3 to slavelabour [link] [comments]

Storing your coins safely while not risking loss of keys

This was originally an answer to a question that was asked here, but OP deleted their post.
This might help some newbies (especially the multisig edit at the end), so I want to make sure it's still accessible here.
The original question was whether the Electrum wallet stores a Trezor's private key when using a passphrase.
OP noticed that their Trezor wouldn't connect to their Electrum wallet when entering a different passphrase than they used when creating the wallet. Thus, OP (likely) assumed that the wallet stored the private key, as it somehow knew that a different private key was now used.
Here is my original answer (with some modifications):
IMPORTANT: I'm assuming here that you connected your Trezor by choosing the "hardware wallet" option in Electrum, rather than giving Electrum your 12/24 seed words.
TL;DR: No, your coins are safe :)
I'm assuming by passphrase) you mean the 25th (or 13th) word. When you have this feature enabled, a private key gets generated every time you enter a passphrase. When you enter the same passphrase you used to create the wallet, the wallet with your funds shows up.
Whenever you enter something different, a different private key is generated on your Trezor. This allows you to have multiple different wallets, for example by choosing the passphrases "First Wallet", "Second Wallet", "Third Wallet", or a secret wallet with a secret passphrase.
So whenever you enter a new passphrase when connecting your Trezor to Electrum, the Trezor will send a new public key to Electrum. Electrum will then derive addresses from this public key and check those for balances. It won't find any, as you used a new passphrase.
EDIT: I just realized that you said your wallet doesn't connect to Electrum when you use a different passphrase. This is simply because Electrum doesn't receive the correct public key from the Trezor and therefore Electrum thinks it's a different wallet (which it is).
When you enter the passphrase you used during creation of your wallet, the Trezor will send your actual public key to Electrum, which will then find addresses with balances, which it will show to you. EDIT (to clarify): Connecting your Trezor after creating the wallet is only necessary to send funds or verify addresses, as the public key is already stored in the wallet.dat.
The only thing Electrum actually stores is the public key, which can only be used to look at your Bitcoin, not to move them. You might want to keep this public key a secret as well though, since it links all your funds to you. This is what Electrum stores in the wallet.dat file, which you can just encrypt by choosing a password for it.
Well done using a passphrase by the way! Should someone get their hands on your Trezor, a sophisticated attacker can get the secret key off the device in 15 minutes. Using a passphrase makes this attack almost useless, as the both secret key AND the passphrase are needed to move your funds, and the passphrase is not stored on the device. A passphrase also allows you to hide funds from potential robbers that force you to unlock your wallet.
You can do this by activating the passphrase feature and sending your funds to a wallet with a secret passphrase (do NOT lose this, as losing your passphrase renders your funds inaccessible). Afterwards, you can safely deactivate the passphrase feature, so the device doesn't even ask for one should you get robbed. Simply reactivate it when you need to access your funds.
EDIT: Should you be worried that you might forget your passphrase, you should look into multisig wallets. Depending on how you set this up, you can make it more secure against theft and less likely for you to lose access to your funds.
Say for example you get four wallets: two hardware wallets, a well-protected (airgapped) laptop with Electrum, and a secure mobile wallet that allows for multisig (like Fully Noded).
You can then create a 2-of-4 multisig wallet that requires you to sign transactions with any two of these four wallets.
The increase in security comes from the fact that an attacker now needs full access to two of your devices (or their stored private keys) at once.
At the same time, the fact that you yourself now also need access to only half of your devices means that in the event of a total loss of one (or even two) of them, you can still move your funds to a new wallet.
As long as you do regular checks (e.g. first day of each month), ensuring that you still have access to all your devices' stored private keys, you can always catch a loss of keys and fix this without losing funds (by creating a new multisig wallet and sending the funds there).
This allows you to use a passphrase on your wallets without storing it anywhere physically or digitally. This would usually be very risky, as forgetting the passphrase would lead to a loss of funds, but this risk is now close to eliminated.
(The following part was not in the original answer)
Some IMPORTANT general secruity tips:
  1. Consider including trusted friends and/or family members as co-signers for a multisig wallet. This ensures that it's not even possible for you alone to hand over funds to an attacker. Depending on your level of trust, you might want to make sure that your co-signers can't collaborate to steal your funds (if you include 3 people, create at least a 4-of-n multisig). You could also deliberately make it possible for all or even just some of your co-signers to move your funds (3 co-signers, 3(or less)-of-n multisig) to make sure your funds aren't lost should pass away unexpectedly.
  2. Consider running your own full node and Electrum server (also check the alternatives), which you connect your Electrum wallet to. This ensures that you don't send your public key to anyone else. If someone knows your public key, they know how much BTC you own, making you a potential target.
  3. Always encrypt your wallet.dat (or whatever you called your wallet file), even if it's a watch-only wallet. This protects your public key (see 1. for why you want that).
  4. Create watch-only wallets: Use an airgapped) device to create a wallet with Electrum (make sure to back up the seed phrase) and export the public key. Then create a new watch-only wallet on another device (like your everyday laptop) with that public key to be able to check your funds. To create the initial wallet, you can also use any other hard- or software wallet that allows you to export the master public key.
  5. Hide, or (when using a hardware wallet with a passphrase) even delete your watch-only wallets. Hiding your funds makes you less of a target. When using a hardware wallet, recreating the watch-only wallet is fast and simple, so you don't need to store it if you don't want to check your funds every day. Note that this approach doesn't help much when you don't use a passphrase, as an attacker will obviously check the passphrase-less wallet no matter what.
  6. Keep some funds on your hardware wallet(s). If an attackers sees funds on the wallet(s), they might not force you to enter a passphrase or ask if you have any multisig wallets (lying under pressure is hard).
  7. Hide all your wallets in different places. If someone sees that you have multiple wallets lying around, they might realize you have a multisig wallet.
  8. Don't risk a robber getting (for example) two keys to your 2-of-4 multisig wallet and then racing them to move your funds with the other two keys when they leave. They're gonna come back and be pissed. If it comes to this, you need protection until the robber is caught. STAY SAFE!
  9. The easiest way to solve a problem is to never have it. Don't make yourself a target. If nobody even suspects that you have a multisig (or any wallet at all), they're probably not gonna look for it.
Please correct any mistakes you find and I will edit my post. I will also gladly add more tips to the list. I will of course credit anyone who helps.
Tip for devs who want something cool and important to work on: Make the creation and usage of multisig wallets as noob-friendly as possible. If someone expresses worries about losing access to their funds by forgetting the seed phrase, wallet pin, etc. (someone in my family actually brought this up to me), multisig wallets are the perfect solution as they add redundancy.
submitted by Fittiboy to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Here is how to play the altcoin game - for newbies & champs

I have been here for many previous altcoin seasons (2013,2017 etc) and wanted to share knowedle. It's a LOOONG article.
The evaluation of altcoins (i.e not Bitcoin) is one of the most difficult and profitable exercises. Here I will outline my methodology and thinking but we have to take some things as a given. The first is that the whole market is going up or down with forces that we can't predict or control. Bitcoin is correlated with economic environments, money supply increases, safe havens such as Gold, hype and country regulations. This is an impossible mix to analyze and almost everyone fails at it. That's why you see people valuing Bitcoin from $100 to $500k frequently. Although I am bullish on the prospects of Bitcoin and decentralization and smart contract platforms, this is not the game I will be describing. I am talking about a game where you try to maximize your BTC holdings by investing in altcoins. We win this game even if we are at a loss in fiat currency value. To put it another way:
If you are not bullish in general on cryptocurrencies you have no place in investing or trading cryptocurrencies since it's always a losing proposition to trade in bubbles, a scientifically proven fact. If on the other hand you are then your goal is to grow your portfolio more than you would if holding BTC/ETH for example.

Bitcoin is the big boy

How the market works is not easily identifiable if you haven't graduated from the 2017 crypto university. When there is a bull market everything seems amazingly profitable and things keep going up outgrowing Bitcoin by orders of magnitude and you are a genius. The problem with this is that it only works while Bitcoin is going up a little bit or trades sideways. When it decides to move big then altcoins lose value both on the way up and on the way down. The second part is obvious and proven since all altcoins from 2017 are at a fraction of their BTC value (usually in the range of 80% or more down). Also, when BTC is making a big move upwards everyone exits altcoins to ride the wave. It is possible that the altcoin market behaves as an inversed leveraged ETF with leakage where in a certain period while Bitcoin starts at 10k and ends at 10k for example, altcoins have lost a lot of value because of the above things happening.

We are doing it anyway champ!

OK so we understand the risks and just wanna gambol with our money right? I get it. Why do that? Because finding the ideal scenario and period can be extremely profitable. In 2017 several altcoins went up 40x more than BTC. But again, if you don't chose wisely many of them have gone back to zero (the author has first hand experience in this!), they have been delisted and nobody remembers them. The actual mentality to have is very important and resembles poker and other speculative games:
A certain altcoin can go up in value indefinitely but can only lose it's starting investment. Think about it. You either lose 1 metric or gain many many more. Now that sounds amazing but firstly as we said we have the goal to outperform our benchmark (BTC) and secondly that going up in value a lot means that the probability is quite low. There is this notion of Expected Value (EV) that poker players apply in these kind of situations and it goes like that. If you think that a certain coin has a probability let's say 10% to go up 10X and 90% probability it goes to zero it's an even bet. If you think that probability is 11% then it's a good bet, a profitable bet and you should take it. You get the point right? It's not that it can only go 10X or 0X, there is a whole range of probability outcomes that are too mathematical to explain here and it doesn't help so much because nobody can do such analysis with altcoins. See below on how we can approximate it.

How to evaluate altcoins

A range of different things to take into account outlined below will form our decision making. Not a single one of them should dictate 100% of our strategy.


It's all about market cap. Repeat after me. The price of a coin doesn't mean anything. Say it 10 times until you believe it. I can't remember how many times I had conversations with people that were comparing coins using their coin price instead of their market cap. To make this easy to get.
If I decide because the sky is blue to make my coin supply 100 Trillion FoolCoins with a price of $0.001 and there is another WiseCoin with a supply of 100 Million and price of $1 then FoolCoins are more expensive. - Alex Fin's Cap Law

Fundamental analysis

This is done usually in the stock world and it means that each company has some fundamental value that includes it's assets, customers, growth prospects, sector prospects and leadership competence but mostly centered in financial measures such as P/E ratios etc. Valuation is a proper economic discipline by itself taught in universities. OK, now throw everything out of the window!.
This kind of analysis is impossible in vague concepts and innovations that are currently cryptocurrencies. Ethereum was frequently priced at the fictional price of gas when all financial systems on earth run on the platform after decades (a bit of exaggeration here). No project is currently profitable enough to justify a valuation multiple that is usually equal to P/E in the thousands or more. As such we need to take other things into account. What I do is included in the list below:

Relative valuation

One of my favorite ways to value altcoins that is based on the same principle in the stock market is to look at peers and decide what is the maximum cap it can grow to. As an example you take a second layer Ethereum solution that has an ICO and you want to decide if you will enter or not. You can take a look at other coins that are in the same business and compare their market caps. Thinking that your coin will outperform by a lot the top coins currently is overly optimistic so I usually take a lower valuation as a target price. If the initial offering is directly implying a valuation that is more than that then there is no room to grow according to my analysis and I skip it. Many times this has proven me wrong because it's a game theory problem where if many people think irrationally in a market it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. But since there is opportunity cost involved, in the long run, getting in initial offerings that have a lot of room to grow will pay off as a strategy.

Sector prospects

In 2017 the sexiest sector was platforms and then coins including privacy ones. Platforms are obviously still a highly rated sector because everything is being built on them, but privacy is not as hot as it used to be. In 2018 DEXes were all they hype but still people are massively using centralized exchanges. In 2020 Defi is the hottest sector and it includes platforms, oracles and Defi projects. What I am saying is that a project gets extra points if it's a Defi one in 2020 and minus points if it's a payment system that will conquer the world as it was in 2017 because that's old news. This is closely related to the next section.


Needless to say that the crypto market is a worse FOMO type of inexperienced trigger happy yolo investors , much worse than the Robinhood crowd that drove a bankrupt company's stock 1200% after they declared bankruptcy. The result is that there are numerous projects that are basically either vaporware or just so overhyped that their valuation has no connection to reality. Should we avoid those kind of projects? No and I will explain why. There are many very good technically projects that had zero hype potential due to incompetent marketing departments that made them tank. An example (without shilling because I sold out a while back) is Quantum Resistant Ledger. This project has amazing quantum resistant blockchain, the only one running now, has a platform that people can build tokens and messaging systems and other magnificent stuff. Just check how they fared up to now and you will get the point. A project *needs* to have a hype factor because you cannot judge it as normal stocks that you can do value investing like Warren Buffet does where a company will inevitable post sales and profitability numbers and investors will get dividends. Actually the last sentence is the most important: No dividends. Even projects that give you tokens or coins as dividends are not real dividends because if the coin tanks the value of the dividend tanks. This is NOT the case with company stocks where you get dollars even if the company stock tanks. All that being said, I would advice against betting on projects that have a lot of hype but little substance (but that should be obvious!).

How to construct your portfolio

My strategy and philosophy in investing is that risk should be proportional to investment capital. That means that if you are investing 100K in the crypto market your portfolio should be very different than someone investing 1K because 10% annual gains are nothing in the latter while they are very significant in the former. Starting from this principle each individual needs to construct a portfolio according to how much risk he wants to take. I will emphasize two important concepts that play well with what I said. In the first instance of a big portfolio you should concentrate on this mantra: "Diversification is the only free meal in finance". In the case of a small portfolio then this mantra is more important: "Concentrate to create wealth, diversify to maintain wealth". Usually in a big portfolio you would want to hold some big coins such as BTC and ETH to weather the ups and downs explained in previous paragraphs while generating profits and keep progressively smaller parts of your portfolio for riskier investments. Maybe 50% of this portfolio could be big caps and 10% very risky initial offerings. Adapting risk progressively to smaller portfolios makes sense but I think it would be irrational to keep more than 30% of a portfolio no matter what tied to one coin due to the very high risk of bankruptcy.


The altseason is supposedly coming every 3 months. Truth is that nobody can predict it but altcoins can be profitable no matter what. Forget about maximalists who are stuck in their dogmas. Altcoins deliver different value propositions and it makes sense because we are very far from a situation where some project offers everything like Amazon and we wouldn't even want that in the first place since we are talking about decentralization and not a winner takes all and becomes a monster kind of scenario! Some last minute advice:
P.S If you find value in reading this and want more weekly consider subscribing to my newsletter here
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Tron v11.1.2 (2020-07-13) // Fix screen rotation bug caused by O&OSU10; escape some references to %USERNAME%; minor definition updates


Tron is a script that "fights for the User."
It aims to automate ~87% of the tedious work in getting a badly-running Windows system back on its feet (clicking "next" in a/v scan windows, etc); with much left to the discretion of the tech.
It is built with heavy reliance on community input and updated regularly.
It is NOT a system optimization or "baseline" script.
Read the instructions.

Sequence of operation

Prep > Tempclean > De-bloat > Disinfect > Repair > Patch > Optimize > Wrap-up | Manual tools
Saves a log to C:\logs\tron\tron.log (configurable).
screenshots of Tron in action


(significant changes in bold; full changelog on Github)
v11.1.2 (2020-07-13)
! bugfix: Wrap missed reference to %TEMP% in quotes. Thanks to u/TheDarkThought
- Minor definition updates


  1. Primary method: Download the .torrent.
  2. Secondary: Download a self-extracting .exe pack from one of the mirrors:
    Mirror HTTPS HTTP Location Host
    Official link link US-DC u/SGC-Hosting
    #1 link link US-NY u/danodemano
    #3 link link DE u/bodrino
    #4 link link US/EU u/mxmod
    #5 link --- US-MI u/ajcutshall
    #6 link --- AU u/agent-squirrel
    #7 link --- GB-LND u/FreezerMoosh
    #8 link --- US-MO u/OlderGeeks
    #9 link --- Amazon CDN u/helpdesktv
    #10 link --- Global CDN Softpedia
  3. Tertiary: Connect to the Syncthing repo (instructions) to get fixes/updates immediately. This method has some risks and you should only use it if you understand them.
  4. Quaternary: Source code
    Source code is available on Github (Note: this doesn't include many of the utilities Tron relies on to function). If you want to view the code without downloading a ~600MB package, Github is a good place to do it.

Command-Line Support

Tron has full command-line support. Switches are optional, can be used simultaneously, and override their respective default when used. See here for a list of command-line switches.

Pack Integrity

SHA-256 hashes are in \tron\integrity_verification\checksums.txt and are signed with my PGP key; included. Use this to verify pack integrity.


Tron will always be free and open-source. If you'd like to buy me a beer or more importantly ... scotch ... you can do so here:
  • Patreon
  • Bitcoin: 1Biw8gx2kD7mZf66ZdNgB9tG1pE9YA3kEd
  • Bitcoin Cash: 18sXTTrAViPZVQtm63zBK6aCK3XfJpEThk
  • Monero (preferred): 4GG9KsJhwcW3zapDw62UaS71ZfFBjH9uwhc8FeyocPhUHHsuxj5zfvpZpZcZFHWpxoXD99MVt6PnR9QfftXDV8s6HbYdDuZEDZ947uiEje
These addresses go directly to u/vocatus. If you wish to support another volunteer (e.g. the incredibly generous u/SGC-Hosting) please contact them directly.

Problems and Support

Please look here first for a list of common issues (Tron appearing to be stalled, etc). If it doesn't answer your issue, make a top-level post to TronScript and myself or one of the community members will look at the issue. Additionally, you can reach me 24/7 on Keybase.
\integrity verification contains checksums.txt and is signed with my PGP key (0x07d1490f82a211a2, pubkey included). Use this to verify the pack.
"Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power to act." -p3:27
submitted by vocatus to TronScript [link] [comments]

Constructing a Bitcoin transaction using python - 3/5 Casa Code - YouTube bitHopper on Git Bitcoin/Altcoin Developer Guide - 5 - Scripting Language, Block Serialization and OpCodes BIP176 Has Been Merged! Will the community embrace Bits?

bitcoinx has 6 repositories available. Follow their code on GitHub. Bitcoin mining is a transaction record process with bitcoins to blockchain – the public database of all the operations with Bitcoin, which is responsible for the transaction confirmation. Network nodes use blockchain to differ the real transactions from the attempt to spend the same facilities twice. The main mining objective is reaching a consensus between network nodes on which ... From Bitcoin Wiki. Jump to: navigation, search. This page describes a BIP (Bitcoin Improvement Proposal). Please see BIP 2 for more information about BIPs and creating them. Please do not just create a wiki page. Please do not modify this page. This is a mirror of the BIP from the source Git repository here. RECENT CHANGES: (16 Apr 2013) Added private derivation for i ≥ 0x80000000 (less risk ... A typescript bitcoin library, including WASM versions of secp256k1, ripemd160, sha256, sha512, and sha1 - bitauth/bitcoin-ts Bitcoind – a daemon program that implements the Bitcoin protocol, is controlled through the command line. It is one of the main components of the Bitcoin network node software. Bitcoin software exists in two forms: a GUI application and a background application (daemon on Unix, service on Windows).

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Constructing a Bitcoin transaction using python - 3/5

I will be going through the entire bitcoin developer reference and in each tutorial I will explain one or more key concepts involving bitcoin and altcoin developing. Trading Bitcoin w/ Joe Saz - Let's See What Order Book Says Tone Vays 752 watching Live now Elon Musk Tech Interview and Bitcoin Competition Live Elon Musk 2,228 watching De que forma é mantido o consenso no bitcoin? Como as melhorias são propostas? Como é atualizado o software? Quem é responsável por essa tarefa? E qual o papel dos full nodes? Para saber mais ... Multistreaming with Donate Bitcoin: 3NqhJSAikoFiYmZm3ACGzdw9Lr86ZiLT7K Join our New Patreon: Subscribe to th... This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue