Bitcoin and Blockchain: History and Current Applications ...

[ANN][ANDROID MINING][AIRDROP] NewEnglandcoin: Scrypt RandomSpike

New England
New England 6 States Songs:
Symbol: NENG
NewEnglandcoin is a clone of Bitcoin using scrypt as a proof-of-work algorithm with enhanced features to protect against 51% attack and decentralize on mining to allow diversified mining rigs across CPUs, GPUs, ASICs and Android phones.
Mining Algorithm: Scrypt with RandomSpike. RandomSpike is 3rd generation of Dynamic Difficulty (DynDiff) algorithm on top of scrypt.
1 minute block targets base difficulty reset: every 1440 blocks subsidy halves in 2.1m blocks (~ 2 to 4 years) 84,000,000,000 total maximum NENG 20000 NENG per block Pre-mine: 1% - reserved for dev fund ICO: None RPCPort: 6376 Port: 6377
NewEnglandcoin has dogecoin like supply at 84 billion maximum NENG. This huge supply insures that NENG is suitable for retail transactions and daily use. The inflation schedule of NengEnglandcoin is actually identical to that of Litecoin. Bitcoin and Litecoin are already proven to be great long term store of value. The Litecoin-like NENG inflation schedule will make NewEnglandcoin ideal for long term investment appreciation as the supply is limited and capped at a fixed number
Bitcoin Fork - Suitable for Home Hobbyists
NewEnglandcoin core wallet continues to maintain version tag of "Satoshi v0.8.7.5" because NewEnglandcoin is very much an exact clone of bitcoin plus some mining feature changes with DynDiff algorithm. NewEnglandcoin is very suitable as lite version of bitcoin for educational purpose on desktop mining, full node running and bitcoin programming using bitcoin-json APIs.
The NewEnglandcoin (NENG) mining algorithm original upgrade ideas were mainly designed for decentralization of mining rigs on scrypt, which is same algo as litecoin/dogecoin. The way it is going now is that NENG is very suitable for bitcoin/litecoin/dogecoin hobbyists who can not , will not spend huge money to run noisy ASIC/GPU mining equipments, but still want to mine NENG at home with quiet simple CPU/GPU or with a cheap ASIC like FutureBit Moonlander 2 USB or Apollo pod on solo mining setup to obtain very decent profitable results. NENG allows bitcoin litecoin hobbyists to experience full node running, solo mining, CPU/GPU/ASIC for a fun experience at home at cheap cost without breaking bank on equipment or electricity.
MIT Free Course - 23 lectures about Bitcoin, Blockchain and Finance (Fall,2018)
CPU Minable Coin Because of dynamic difficulty algorithm on top of scrypt, NewEnglandcoin is CPU Minable. Users can easily set up full node for mining at Home PC or Mac using our dedicated cheetah software.
Research on the first forked 50 blocks on v1.2.0 core confirmed that ASIC/GPU miners mined 66% of 50 blocks, CPU miners mined the remaining 34%.
NENG v1.4.0 release enabled CPU mining inside android phones.
Youtube Video Tutorial
How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 1 How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 2
How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in macOS
Decentralization and Community Driven NewEnglandcoin is a decentralized coin just like bitcoin. There is no boss on NewEnglandcoin. Nobody nor the dev owns NENG.
We know a coin is worth nothing if there is no backing from community. Therefore, we as dev do not intend to make decision on this coin solely by ourselves. It is our expectation that NewEnglandcoin community will make majority of decisions on direction of this coin from now on. We as dev merely view our-self as coin creater and technical support of this coin while providing NENG a permanent home at ShorelineCrypto Exchange.
Twitter Airdrop
Follow NENG twitter and receive 100,000 NENG on Twitter Airdrop to up to 1000 winners
Graphic Redesign Bounty
Top one award: 90.9 million NENG Top 10 Winners: 500,000 NENG / person Event Timing: March 25, 2019 - Present Event Address: NewEnglandcoin DISCORD at:
Please complete above Twitter Bounty requirement first. Then follow Below Steps to qualify for the Bounty: (1) Required: submit your own designed NENG logo picture in gif, png jpg or any other common graphic file format into DISCORD "bounty-submission" board (2) Optional: submit a second graphic for logo or any other marketing purposes into "bounty-submission" board. (3) Complete below form.
Please limit your submission to no more than two total. Delete any wrongly submitted or undesired graphics in the board. Contact DISCORD u/honglu69#5911 or u/krypton#6139 if you have any issues.
Twitter Airdrop/Graphic Redesign bounty sign up:
NENG v1.4.0 Android Mining, randomSpike Evaluation
RandomSpike - NENG core v1.3.0 Hardfork Upgrade Proposal
NENG Security, Decentralization & Valuation
Whitepaper v1.0
Step by step guide on how to setup an explorer:
Android with UserLand App (arm64/armhf), Chromebook (x64/arm64/armhf):
Linux Wallet (Ubuntu/Linux Mint, Debian/MX Linux, Arch/Manjaro, Fedora, openSUSE):
MacOS Wallet (10.11 El Capitan or higher):
Android with GNUroot on 32 bits old Phones (alpha release) wallet:
Windows wallet:
addnode ip address for the wallet to sync faster, frequently updated conf file:
How to Sync Full Node Desktop Wallet
Cheetah CPU Miner Software
Solo Mining with GPU or ASIC
How to Run Two Full Node in Same Desktop PC
ASIC/GPU Mining Pools Warning to Big ASIC Miners Due to DynDiff Algo on top of Scrypt, solo mining is recommended for ASIC/GPU miners. Further more, even for mining pools, small mining pool will generate better performance than big NENG mining pool because of new algo v1.2.x post hard fork.
The set up configuration of NENG for scrypt pool mining is same as a typical normal scrypt coin. In other word, DynDiff on Scrypt algo is backward compatible with Scrypt algo. Because ASIC/GPU miners rely on CPU miners for smooth blockchain movement, checkout bottom of "Latest News" section for A WARNING to All ASIC miners before you decide to dump big ASIC hash rate into NENG mining.
(1) Original DynDiff Warning: (2) New Warning on RandomSpike Spike difficulty (244k) introduced in RandomSpike served as roadblocks to instant mining and provide security against 51% attack risk. However, this spike difficulty like a roadblock that makes big ASIC mining less profitable. In case of spike block to be mined, the spike difficulty immediately serve as base difficulty, which will block GPU/ASIC miners effectively and leave CPU cheetah solo miners dominating mining almost 100% until next base difficulty reset.
Cminors' Pool
Features: anonymous sign up and trading. No restriction or limit on deposit or withdraw.
The trading pairs available: NewEnglandcoin (NENG) / Dogecoin (DOGE)
Trading commission: A round trip trading will incur 0.10% trading fees in average. Fees are paid only on buyer side. buy fee: 0.2% / sell fee: 0% Deposit fees: free for all coins Withdraw fees: ZERO per withdraw. Mining fees are appointed by each coin blockchain. To cover the blockchain mining fees, there is minimum balance per coin per account: * Dogecoin 2 DOGE * NewEnglandcoin 1 NENG
Latest News Aug 30, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.5 Released for Android/Chromebook Upgrade with armhf, better hardware support
Aug 11, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.4 Released for Android arm64 Upgrade / Chromebook Support
Jul 30, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.3 Released for Linux Wallet Upgrade with 8 Distros
Jul 21, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.2 Released for MacOS Upgrade with Catalina
Jul 19, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.1 Released for MacOS Wallet Upgrade
Jul 15, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Released for Android Mining, Ubuntu 20.04 support
Jul 11, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Android Mining, randomSpike Evaluation
Jun 27, 2020 - Pre-Announce: NENG v1.4.0 Proposal for Mobile Miner Upgrade, Android Mining Start in July 2020
Jun 19, 2020 - Best Practice for Futurebit Moonlander2 USB ASIC on solo mining mode
Mar 15, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG v1.3.0.1 Released for better wallet syncing
Feb 23, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG Core v1.3.0 Relased, Hardfork on Mar 1
Feb 1, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike Proposal Published- NENG 1.3.0 Hardfork
Jan 15, 2020 - NewEnglandcoin Dev Team Expanded with New Kickoff
Jan 12, 2020 - Explanation of Base Diff Reset and Effect of Supply
Dec 19, 2019 - Shoreline_tradingbot version 1.0 is released
Sept 1, 2019 - NewEnglandcoin (NENG) is Selected as Shoreline Tradingbot First Supported Coin
Aug 15, 2019 - Mining Update on Effect of Base Difficulty Reset, GPU vs ASIC
Jul 7, 2019 - CPU Mining on macOS Mojave is supported under latest Cheetah_Cpuminer Release
Jun 1, 2019 - NENG Fiat project is stopped by Square, Inc
Apr 21, 2019 - NENG Fiat Project is Launched by ShorelineCrypto
Apr 7, 2019 - Announcement of Fiat Project for all U.S. Residents & Mobile Miner Project Initiation
Apr 1, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange
Mar 27, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange
Mar 17, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange
Feb 26, 2019 - Community Project - NewEnglandcoin Graphic Redesign Bounty Initiated
Feb 22, 2019 - Dev Policy on Checkpoints on NewEnglandcoin
Feb 20, 2019 - NewEnglandCoin v1.2.1 Released to Secure the Hard Kork
Feb 11, 2019 - NewEnglandCoin v1.2.0 Released, Anti-51% Attack, Anti-instant Mining after Hard Fork
Jan 13, 2019 - Cheetah_CpuMiner added support for CPU Mining on Mac
Jan 12, 2019 - NENG Core v1.1.2 Released to support MacOS OSX Wallet
Jan 2, 2019 - Cheetah_Cpuminer v1.1.0 is released for both Linux and Windows
Dec 31, 2018 - Technical Whitepaper is Released
Dec 28, 2018 - Cheetah_Cpuminer v1.0.0 is released for Linux
Update on Dec 14, 2018 - NENG Blockchain Stuck Issue
Nov 27, 2018 - Exclusive for PC CPU Miners - How to Steal a Block from ASIC Miners
Nov 28, 2018 - How to CPU Mine a NENG block with window/linux PC
Nov 29, 2018 - A Warning to ASIC Miners
Disclosure: Dev Team Came from ShorelineCrypto, a US based Informatics Service Business offering Fee for service for Coin Creation, Coin Exchange Listing, Blockchain Consulting, etc.
submitted by honglu69 to NewEnglandCoin [link] [comments]

ETX stands out from the market, proves itself with strength, and has a bright future

ETX stands out from the market, proves itself with strength, and has a bright future
To make a strategic choice with considerable returns in the financial market, it must undergo a rigorous and comprehensive analysis. Friends who care about digital currency know that there are many uncertainties in digital currency itself, and market changes are often difficult to accurately capture in advance, so it is more difficult to make a foresight choice in the digital currency market. However, difficulty does not mean that there is no way to achieve the goal. Some experienced players can find the ideal currency through analysis of technology, capital and other aspects.
Although old currencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum have successful experience and solid technology, they are now somewhat stable, but they have not been completely stabilized. In the following market operation process, they will still be affected by the outside world from time to time It is also inevitable. Among the latest new currencies, although some currencies claim to have achieved various improvements, they have not been tested by the market, so it is inevitable that people will hesitate. In contrast, ETX (EthereumX · NET) with excellent technology may be a good choice.
The emergence of Ethereum- X Ethereum- X referred to as ETX is an experimental project of ETH, original POW + DPOS model to solve the defects of ETH's existing economic model, and will improve the security of generated blocks, adopt a new blockchain Architecture ETX is one of the operating systems in the blockchain field and the infrastructure of the blockchain world. It defines all the series of mechanisms on the public chain. Developers can build their own applications on the The chain industry provides a wide range of applications. Conform to the development trend of informatization, walk at the forefront of blockchain public chain technology and application, and strive to create an ecological industrial public chain system that meets the needs of global industries and promote the integration of blockchain technology and the actual economy.
The ETX public chain system aims at industrial pain points and provides innovative solutions for enterprises and application developers based on the blockchain public chain technology. It can build and develop system applications to serve the real economy. It is consistent with national policies in terms of combining industry, talent training, system open source, and industrial blockchain incubation accelerators, so that related teams can use public chain systems more conveniently and at lower cost, and can freely choose modular application software platforms. We will devote ourselves to building a public chain ecology and fully support the industry's on-chain needs through talents, funds, and communities.
ETX public chain is committed to accelerating the implementation of blockchain applications and promoting the high-quality development of traditional industries. In terms of applications, ETX public chain will combine high-tech scientific technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, virtual reality, robotics, Internet of Things, cloud services, etc., in smart manufacturing, health care, transportation, intellectual property protection, new energy vehicles, organic Agriculture, distributed energy, food, commerce, finance and other industries promote the application of the ground, provide a solid blockchain infrastructure for more application scenarios, support enterprises on the chain, realize the deep integration of blockchain technology and industry, and improve the industry The collaborative efficiency of the chain reduces industrial operating costs.
As the culmination of a new round of information technology innovation, the application of blockchain in the economic industry is pushing the entire economic system to achieve technological change, organizational change and efficiency change. The implementation of blockchain technology will bring the existing business model Refactoring. Players who have experienced market fluctuations usually have a sharper eye when facing new choices. ETX (EthereumX.NET), which is bright in both technology and development prospects, is destined to be the focus of many players. (There are risks in the market, investment needs to be cautious, please do as your capability permits. )
submitted by BitRay2077 to u/BitRay2077 [link] [comments]

Market Analysis on April 8, 2020: U.S. Stocks Opened Higher And Fell Back, Can BTC Be Alone?

Market Analysis on April 8, 2020: U.S. Stocks Opened Higher And Fell Back, Can BTC Be Alone?
[Today's Hot Tips]
1. [BCH is expected to be halved in 12 hours]
The data shows that the current block height of BCH is 629927, and there are 73 blocks from the block height of halving of 630,000. BCH is expected to have 12 hours left before the halving, which is around 23:00 on April 8. Note: BCH will be halved at a block height of 630,000, when the block reward will be reduced from 12.5 BCH to 6.25 BCH.
2. [Shanghai will accelerate the application of 5G, blockchain, etc. in the field of public health]
According to the First Financial News, the Shanghai Municipal Government website issued "Several Opinions on perfecting the Prevention and Control System and the Public Health Emergency Management System of Major Epidemic Situations of the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee and Shanghai Municipal People's Government of CPC." The opinions propose to promote the in-depth application of new technologies, new products and new models, strengthen the construction of public health emergency informatization, accelerate the application of 5G, blockchain and other technologies in the field of public health, and strengthen the integration of multi-source data, promote the application of health big data in the field of public health, improve the functions of disease prevention and control business information systems, support the collection and application of epidemiological survey data, and promote refined and intelligent management.
3. 【BTC raises difficulty to 14.22T】
It is expected that the difficulty of BTC will increase by 2.18% to 14.22T after 19 hours.
4. [Report: WeChat Pay has been sharply reduced in OTC trading on cryptocurrency exchanges]
According to the financial news on the chain, the pattern of Alipay and WeChat payment occupying the mainstream payment methods of OTC trading on cryptocurrency exchanges has recently undergone tremendous changes. Today, Alipay payment and bank card payment have become the main methods of OTC trading on cryptocurrency exchanges, and WeChat payment has almost disappeared in OTC trading. According to statistics on April 3, currently the USDT OTC channels of the three major exchanges (LOEx, Huobi, and Binance) only support WeChat payment merchants accounted for 7.35%, while Alipay payment merchants accounted for 50.34%, and 60.22% of merchants support bank card transfer payment.
[Today's market analysis]
Bitcoin (BTC)
BTC fell slightly from around $ 7350 this early morning. It fell rapidly around 3:30. It briefly fell below $ 7100 and fell to a minimum of $ 7080. Then it rebounded slightly. Now BTC has returned to around $ 7150 for narrow range consolidation. The mainstream currency followed and consolidated, and both rebounded slightly after a sharp decline in the early morning hours. BTC is now reported at $ 7303.06 at LOEx Global, with a decline of 0.24% in the day.
Regarding the market, it was made clear yesterday. The current market is like a sudden illness, how can it recover so quickly. As U.S. stocks opened higher and fell back, the global capital was basically bottoming out again. The capital markets plunged a few times in the past, and the digital currency market can not being concerned only for itself. Therefore, so it is better to be cautious in this rebound.
Two months ago, people said that BCH will be halved, but today BCH is really about to be halved. Has it risen? No, the current block height is 629775, there are 225 blocks from the block height halving of 630,000. It is estimated that BCH will be halved at around 23:00 on April 8, and there is no expectation of halving the BCH. They are all concepts.
Operation suggestions:
Support level: the first support level is 7200 points, the second support level is 7000 integers;
Resistance level: the first resistance level is 7400 points, the second resistance level is 7700 points.
LOEx is registered in Seychelles. It is a global one-stop digital asset service platform with business distribution nodes in 20 regions around the world. It has been exempted from Seychelles and Singapore Monetary Authority (MAS) digital currency trading services. Provide services and secure encrypted digital currency trading environment for 1 million community members in 24 hours.
submitted by LOEXCHANGE to u/LOEXCHANGE [link] [comments]

Hackathon Lisk Alpha SDK based delivered + Lisk as sponsor on the Argentina Crypto Fest event at Cordoba.

Hi all,
On September 27th at Cordoba - Argentina, I had the chance to host an Alpha SDK workshop and later on the participants used it for Hackathon competition about decentralized applications.
It was a great experience, people very liked the SDK and this concept about pre-genesis defined custom transactions along with the possibility of customizing blockchain parameters such as block time, max number of transactions per block, etc..
500 usd in Lisk were given to the winner group (they did a PoC about peer to peer house rental, similar to lisk bills but involving block height records for verifying payment on time).
The next day to the hackathon we also had the Argentina Crypto Fest event ( ) with Lisk as one of the sponsors (I contributed with 2016 LSK for having Lisk as sponsor,
All this was organized by the American Blockchain Association with collaboration of the ONG Bitcoin Argentina. As part of the sponsors we had very important ones such as the Government of Cordoba and UTN (Universidad Tecnológica Nacional).
In addition to all this I received a proposal From Oscar Medina (thanks for all his support in the hackathon), Engineer Professor from UTN (A very well recognized university from Argentina) to deliver them a knowledge transfer so they can include the Lisk Alpha SDK as part of their lab in a new blockchain chapter they want including in the Informatic Engineering course.
They understood Lisk Alpha SDK is not yet something for production purposes, just for PoCs, but they found it very nice for educative purposes.
I also got an interview from Satoshi Magazine and had the chance to better detail the Lisk vision and its strengths.
I'm sharing some pictures from the Hackathon and the interview in Satoshi Magazine. I'm waiting for the organizers to process some material from the Crypto Fest so I can share that as well.
Kind Regards,
SGDIAS delegate.
submitted by sgdias to Lisk [link] [comments]

Ouroboros Genesis Research to be Presented at Leading Computer Security Event

IOHK, the leading blockchain research and development company behind top 10 cryptocurrency Cardano, has announced that it will present its research on Ouroboros Genesis at ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security. The research tackles critical challenges that exist in proof-of-stake protocols and this latest version of Ouroboros, the algorithm powering Cardano, represents a significant milestone on the roadmap of research that began with Ouroboros and was followed by Ouroboros Praos.
Using Ouroboros Genesis, users joining the blockchain later will be able to do so securely based only on an authentic copy of the genesis block, without the need to rely on a checkpoint provided by a trusted party. Though common in proof-of-work protocols like Bitcoin, this feature was previously unavailable in existing proof-of-stake systems and was widely believed impossible.
The Ouroboros Genesis paper will be presented by team member Christian Badertscher on October 17th at the ACM Symposium on Computer and Communications Security. The event is a leading global computer security and cryptography conference.
Aggelos Kiayias, IOHK Chief Scientist, said: “Ouroboros Genesis resolves an important open question in the PoS blockchain space, namely how it is possible to securely connect to the system without any information beyond the genesis block. This is a significant step forward that enables a higher degree of decentralization that seemed unatttainable for PoS protocols before our work. Our security analysis is also in the "universal composition" setting that provides, for the first time in the PoS space, a modular way of building secure applications on top of the ledger.”
Christian Badertscher said: “It is exciting to present Ouroboros Genesis at a top security conference and very rewarding to see how theoretical research can make a significant impact on practice. Avoiding the need of a trusted checkpoint, and still being secure in a setting with a variable level of participation, has been a challenging problem to solve in the PoS space.”
In February 2017, IOHK launched Ouroboros, the first iteration of its custom Proof-of-Stake protocol. IOHK’s research paper outlining Ouroboros was accepted to Crypto 2017, the foremost academic event in the field of cryptography. Ouroboros was developed by leading academics in response to an increasing global demand for efficient and secure blockchains that can process transactions sustainably. Along with the Bitcoin protocol, Ouroboros is the only proof-of-stake blockchain protocol that has achieved such a distinctive level of academic peer review.
Ouroboros Praos, the second version of the protocol was accepted to Eurocrypt 2018, hosted in Tel Aviv, Israel by the International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR) and considered to be one of the most prestigious academic events in the cryptography field. Ouroboros was designed by a highly skilled team of cryptographers, led by IOHK Chief Scientist Professor Aggelos Kiayias, who is Chair in Cybersecurity and Privacy at the University of Edinburgh’s School of Informatics, and director of the Blockchain Technology Laboratory at the University of Edinburgh.
For more information on Ouroboros Genesis, see
submitted by patrickroper to cardano [link] [comments]

Agreement with Satoshi – On the Formalization of Nakamoto Consensus

Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2018/400
Date: 2018-05-01
Author(s): Nicholas Stifter, Aljosha Judmayer, Philipp Schindler, Alexei Zamyatin, Edgar Weippl

Link to Paper

The term Nakamoto consensus is generally used to refer to Bitcoin's novel consensus mechanism, by which agreement on its underlying transaction ledger is reached. It is argued that this agreement protocol represents the core innovation behind Bitcoin, because it promises to facilitate the decentralization of trusted third parties. Specifically, Nakamoto consensus seeks to enable mutually distrusting entities with weak pseudonymous identities to reach eventual agreement while the set of participants may change over time. When the Bitcoin white paper was published in late 2008, it lacked a formal analysis of the protocol and the guarantees it claimed to provide. It would take the scientific community several years before first steps towards such a formalization of the Bitcoin protocol and Nakamoto consensus were presented. However, since then the number of works addressing this topic has grown substantially, providing many new and valuable insights. Herein, we present a coherent picture of advancements towards the formalization of Nakamoto consensus, as well as a contextualization in respect to previous research on the agreement problem and fault tolerant distributed computing. Thereby, we outline how Bitcoin's consensus mechanism sets itself apart from previous approaches and where it can provide new impulses and directions to the scientific community. Understanding the core properties and characteristics of Nakamoto consensus is of key importance, not only for assessing the security and reliability of various blockchain systems that are based on the fundamentals of this scheme, but also for designing future systems that aim to fulfill comparable goals.

[AAC+05] Amitanand S Aiyer, Lorenzo Alvisi, Allen Clement, Mike Dahlin, Jean-Philippe Martin, and Carl Porth. Bar fault tolerance for cooperative services. In ACM SIGOPS operating systems review, volume 39, pages 45–58. ACM, 2005.
[ABSFG08] Eduardo A Alchieri, Alysson Neves Bessani, Joni Silva Fraga, and Fab´ıola Greve. Byzantine consensus with unknown participants. In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems, pages 22–40. SpringerVerlag, 2008.
[AFJ06] Dana Angluin, Michael J Fischer, and Hong Jiang. Stabilizing consensus in mobile networks. In Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, pages 37–50. Springer, 2006.
[AJK05] James Aspnes, Collin Jackson, and Arvind Krishnamurthy. Exposing computationally-challenged byzantine impostors. Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, Tech. Rep, 2005.
[AMN+16] Ittai Abraham, Dahlia Malkhi, Kartik Nayak, Ling Ren, and Alexander Spiegelman. Solidus: An incentive-compatible cryptocurrency based on permissionless byzantine consensus., Dec 2016. Accessed: 2017-02-06.
[AS98] Yair Amir and Jonathan Stanton. The spread wide area group communication system. Technical report, TR CNDS-98-4, The Center for Networking and Distributed Systems, The Johns Hopkins University, 1998.
[Bag00] Walter Bagehot. The english constitution, volume 3. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1900. ¨
[Ban98] Bela Ban. Design and implementation of a reliable group communication toolkit for java, 1998.
[BBRTP07] Roberto Baldoni, Marin Bertier, Michel Raynal, and Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni. Looking for a definition of dynamic distributed systems. In International Conference on Parallel Computing Technologies, pages 1–14. Springer, 2007.
[Bit] Bitcoin community. Bitcoin-core source code. Accessed: 2015-06-30.
[BJ87] Ken Birman and Thomas Joseph. Exploiting virtual synchrony in distributed systems. volume 21. ACM, 1987.
[BMC+15] Joseph Bonneau, Andrew Miller, Jeremy Clark, Arvind Narayanan, Joshua A Kroll, and Edward W Felten. Sok: Research perspectives and challenges for bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. In IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2015.
[BO83] Michael Ben-Or. Another advantage of free choice (extended abstract): Completely asynchronous agreement protocols. In Proceedings of the second annual ACM symposium on Principles of distributed computing, pages 27–30. ACM, 1983.
[BPS16a] Iddo Bentov, Rafael Pass, and Elaine Shi. The sleepy model of consensus., 2016. Accessed: 2016-11-08.
[BPS16b] Iddo Bentov, Rafael Pass, and Elaine Shi. Snow white: Provably secure proofs of stake., 2016. Accessed: 2016-11-08.
[BR09] Franc¸ois Bonnet and Michel Raynal. The price of anonymity: Optimal consensus despite asynchrony, crash and anonymity. In Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on Distributed computing, pages 341–355. Springer-Verlag, 2009.
[Bre00] EA Brewer. Towards robust distributed systems. abstract. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, page 7, 2000.
[BSAB+17] Shehar Bano, Alberto Sonnino, Mustafa Al-Bassam, Sarah Azouvi, Patrick McCorry, Sarah Meiklejohn, and George Danezis. Consensus in the age of blockchains. arXiv:1711.03936, 2017. Accessed:2017-12-11.
[BT16] Zohir Bouzid and Corentin Travers. Anonymity-preserving failure detectors. In International Symposium on Distributed Computing, pages 173–186. Springer, 2016.
[Can00] Ran Canetti. Security and composition of multiparty cryptographic protocols. Journal of CRYPTOLOGY, 13(1):143–202, 2000.
[Can01] Ran Canetti. Universally composable security: A new paradigm for cryptographic protocols. In Foundations of Computer Science, 2001. Proceedings. 42nd IEEE Symposium on, pages 136–145. IEEE, 2001.
[CFN90] David Chaum, Amos Fiat, and Moni Naor. Untraceable electronic cash. In Proceedings on Advances in cryptology, pages 319–327. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 1990.
[CGR07] Tushar D Chandra, Robert Griesemer, and Joshua Redstone. Paxos made live: an engineering perspective. In Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual ACM symposium on Principles of distributed computing, pages 398–407. ACM, 2007.
[CGR11] Christian Cachin, Rachid Guerraoui, and Luis Rodrigues. Introduction to reliable and secure distributed programming. Springer Science & Business Media, 2011.
[CKS00] Christian Cachin, Klaus Kursawe, and Victor Shoup. Random oracles in constantinople: Practical asynchronous byzantine agreement using cryptography. In Proceedings of the nineteenth annual ACM symposium on Principles of distributed computing, pages 123–132. ACM, 2000.
[CL+99] Miguel Castro, Barbara Liskov, et al. Practical byzantine fault tolerance. In OSDI, volume 99, pages 173–186, 1999.
[CL02] Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov. Practical byzantine fault tolerance and proactive recovery. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS), 20(4):398–461, 2002.
[CNV04] Miguel Correia, Nuno Ferreira Neves, and Paulo Verissimo. How to tolerate half less one byzantine nodes in practical distributed systems. In Reliable Distributed Systems, 2004. Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Symposium on, pages 174–183. IEEE, 2004.
[Coo09] J. L. Coolidge. The gambler’s ruin. Annals of Mathematics, 10(4):181–192, 1909.
[Cri91] Flaviu Cristian. Reaching agreement on processor-group membrship in synchronous distributed systems. Distributed Computing, 4(4):175–187, 1991.
[CT96] Tushar Deepak Chandra and Sam Toueg. Unreliable failure detectors for reliable distributed systems. volume 43, pages 225–267. ACM, 1996.
[CV17] Christian Cachin and Marko Vukolic. Blockchain con- ´sensus protocols in the wild. arXiv:1707.01873, 2017. Accessed:2017-09-26.
[CVL10] Miguel Correia, Giuliana S Veronese, and Lau Cheuk Lung. Asynchronous byzantine consensus with 2f+ 1 processes. In Proceedings of the 2010 ACM symposium on applied computing, pages 475–480. ACM, 2010.
[CVNV11] Miguel Correia, Giuliana Santos Veronese, Nuno Ferreira Neves, and Paulo Verissimo. Byzantine consensus in asynchronous message-passing systems: a survey. volume 2, pages 141–161. Inderscience Publishers, 2011.
[CWA+09] Allen Clement, Edmund L Wong, Lorenzo Alvisi, Michael Dahlin, and Mirco Marchetti. Making byzantine fault tolerant systems tolerate byzantine faults. In NSDI, volume 9, pages 153–168, 2009.
[DDS87] Danny Dolev, Cynthia Dwork, and Larry Stockmeyer. On the minimal synchronism needed for distributed consensus. volume 34, pages 77–97. ACM, 1987.
[Dei] Wei Dei. b-money. Accessed on 03/03/2017.
[DGFGK10] Carole Delporte-Gallet, Hugues Fauconnier, Rachid Guerraoui, and Anne-Marie Kermarrec. Brief announcement: Byzantine agreement with homonyms. In Proceedings of the twentysecond annual ACM symposium on Parallelism in algorithms and architectures, pages 74–75. ACM, 2010.
[DGG02] Assia Doudou, Benoˆıt Garbinato, and Rachid Guerraoui. Encapsulating failure detection: From crash to byzantine failures. In International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, pages 24–50. Springer, 2002.
[DGKR17] Bernardo David, Peter Gazi, Aggelos Kiayias, and Alexan- ˇder Russell. Ouroboros praos: An adaptively-secure, semisynchronous proof-of-stake protocol. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/573, 2017. Accessed: 2017-06-29.
[DLP+86] Danny Dolev, Nancy A Lynch, Shlomit S Pinter, Eugene W Stark, and William E Weihl. Reaching approximate agreement in the presence of faults. volume 33, pages 499–516. ACM, 1986.
[DLS88] Cynthia Dwork, Nancy Lynch, and Larry Stockmeyer. Consensus in the presence of partial synchrony. volume 35, pages 288–323. ACM, 1988.
[DN92] Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor. Pricing via processing or combatting junk mail. In Annual International Cryptology Conference, pages 139–147. Springer, 1992.
[Dol81] Danny Dolev. Unanimity in an unknown and unreliable environment. In Foundations of Computer Science, 1981. SFCS’81. 22nd Annual Symposium on, pages 159–168. IEEE, 1981.
[Dou02] John R Douceur. The sybil attack. In International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems, pages 251–260. Springer, 2002.
[DSU04] Xavier Defago, Andr ´ e Schiper, and P ´ eter Urb ´ an. Total order ´ broadcast and multicast algorithms: Taxonomy and survey. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 36(4):372–421, 2004.
[DW13] Christian Decker and Roger Wattenhofer. Information propagation in the bitcoin network. In Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P), 2013 IEEE Thirteenth International Conference on, pages 1–10. IEEE, 2013.
[EGSvR16] Ittay Eyal, Adem Efe Gencer, Emin Gun Sirer, and Robbert van Renesse. Bitcoin-ng: A scalable blockchain protocol. In 13th USENIX Security Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI’16). USENIX Association, Mar 2016.
[ES14] Ittay Eyal and Emin Gun Sirer. Majority is not enough: Bitcoin ¨ mining is vulnerable. In Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pages 436–454. Springer, 2014.
[Fin04] Hal Finney. Reusable proofs of work (rpow)., 2004. Accessed: 2016-04-31.
[Fis83] Michael J Fischer. The consensus problem in unreliable distributed systems (a brief survey). In International Conference on Fundamentals of Computation Theory, pages 127–140. Springer, 1983.
[FL82] Michael J FISCHER and Nancy A LYNCH. A lower bound for the time to assure interactive consistency. volume 14, Jun 1982.
[FLP85] Michael J Fischer, Nancy A Lynch, and Michael S Paterson. Impossibility of distributed consensus with one faulty process. volume 32, pages 374–382. ACM, 1985.
[Fuz08] Rachele Fuzzati. A formal approach to fault tolerant distributed consensus. PhD thesis, EPFL, 2008.
[GHM+17] Yossi Gilad, Rotem Hemo, Silvio Micali, Georgios Vlachos, and Nickolai Zeldovich. Algorand: Scaling byzantine agreements for cryptocurrencies. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/454, 2017. Accessed: 2017-06-29.
[GKL15] Juan Garay, Aggelos Kiayias, and Nikos Leonardos. The bitcoin backbone protocol: Analysis and applications. In Advances in Cryptology-EUROCRYPT 2015, pages 281–310. Springer, 2015.
[GKL16] Juan A. Garay, Aggelos Kiayias, and Nikos Leonardos. The bitcoin backbone protocol with chains of variable difficulty., 2016. Accessed: 2017-02-06.
[GKP17] Juan A. Garay, Aggelos Kiayias, and Giorgos Panagiotakos. Proofs of work for blockchain protocols. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/775, 2017.
[GKQV10] Rachid Guerraoui, Nikola Knezevi ˇ c, Vivien Qu ´ ema, and Marko ´ Vukolic. The next 700 bft protocols. In ´ Proceedings of the 5th European conference on Computer systems, pages 363–376. ACM, 2010.
[GKTZ12] Adam Groce, Jonathan Katz, Aishwarya Thiruvengadam, and Vassilis Zikas. Byzantine agreement with a rational adversary. pages 561–572. Springer, 2012.
[GKW+16] Arthur Gervais, Ghassan O Karame, Karl Wust, Vasileios ¨ Glykantzis, Hubert Ritzdorf, and Srdjan Capkun. On the security and performance of proof of work blockchains., 2016. Accessed: 2016-08-10.
[GL02] Seth Gilbert and Nancy Lynch. Brewer’s conjecture and the feasibility of consistent, available, partition-tolerant web services. volume 33, pages 51–59. ACM, 2002.
[GRKC15] Arthur Gervais, Hubert Ritzdorf, Ghassan O Karame, and Srdjan Capkun. Tampering with the delivery of blocks and transactions in bitcoin. In Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pages 692–705. ACM, 2015.
[Her88] Maurice P Herlihy. Impossibility and universality results for wait-free synchronization. In Proceedings of the seventh annual ACM Symposium on Principles of distributed computing, pages 276–290. ACM, 1988.
[Her91] Maurice Herlihy. Wait-free synchronization. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS), 13(1):124–149, 1991.
[HKZG15] Ethan Heilman, Alison Kendler, Aviv Zohar, and Sharon Goldberg. Eclipse attacks on bitcoin’s peer-to-peer network. In 24th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 15), pages 129–144, 2015.
[Hoe07] Jaap-Henk Hoepman. Distributed double spending prevention. In Security Protocols Workshop, pages 152–165. Springer, 2007.
[HT94] Vassos Hadzilacos and Sam Toueg. A modular approach to fault-tolerant broadcasts and related problems. Cornell University Technical Report 94-1425, 1994.
[IT08] Hideaki Ishii and Roberto Tempo. Las vegas randomized algorithms in distributed consensus problems. In 2008 American Control Conference, pages 2579–2584. IEEE, 2008.
[JB99] Ari Juels and John G Brainard. Client puzzles: A cryptographic countermeasure against connection depletion attacks. In NDSS, volume 99, pages 151–165, 1999.
[KMMS01] Kim Potter Kihlstrom, Louise E Moser, and P Michael MelliarSmith. The securering group communication system. ACM Transactions on Information and System Security (TISSEC), 4(4):371–406, 2001.
[KMMS03] Kim Potter Kihlstrom, Louise E Moser, and P Michael MelliarSmith. Byzantine fault detectors for solving consensus. volume 46, pages 16–35. Br Computer Soc, 2003.
[KMTZ13] Jonathan Katz, Ueli Maurer, Bjorn Tackmann, and Vassilis ¨ Zikas. Universally composable synchronous computation. In TCC, volume 7785, pages 477–498. Springer, 2013.
[KP15] Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos. Speed-security tradeoff s in blockchain protocols., Oct 2015. Accessed: 2016-10-17.
[KP16] Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos. On trees, chains and fast transactions in the blockchain., 2016. Accessed: 2017-02-06.
[KRDO16] Aggelos Kiayias, Alexander Russell, Bernardo David, and Roman Oliynykov. Ouroboros: A provably secure proof-of-stake blockchain protocol., 2016. Accessed: 2017-02-20.
[Lam84] Leslie Lamport. Using time instead of timeout for fault-tolerant distributed systems. volume 6, pages 254–280. ACM, 1984.
[Lam98] Leslie Lamport. The part-time parliament. volume 16, pages 133–169. ACM, 1998.
[LCW+06] Harry C Li, Allen Clement, Edmund L Wong, Jeff Napper, Indrajit Roy, Lorenzo Alvisi, and Michael Dahlin. Bar gossip. In Proceedings of the 7th symposium on Operating systems design and implementation, pages 191–204. USENIX Association, 2006.
[LSM06] Brian Neil Levine, Clay Shields, and N Boris Margolin. A survey of solutions to the sybil attack. University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 7, 2006.
[LSP82] Leslie Lamport, Robert Shostak, and Marshall Pease. The byzantine generals problem. volume 4, pages 382–401. ACM, 1982.
[LSZ15] Yoad Lewenberg, Yonatan Sompolinsky, and Aviv Zohar. Inclusive block chain protocols. In Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pages 528–547. Springer, 2015.
[LTKS15] Loi Luu, Jason Teutsch, Raghav Kulkarni, and Prateek Saxena. Demystifying incentives in the consensus computer. In Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pages 706–719. ACM, 2015.
[Lyn96] Nancy A Lynch. Distributed algorithms. Morgan Kaufmann, 1996.
[Mic16] Silvio Micali. Algorand: The efficient and democratic ledger., 2016. Accessed: 2017-02-09.
[Mic17] Silvio Micali. Byzantine agreement, made trivial. 2017. Accessed:2018-02-21.
[MJ14] A Miller and LaViola JJ. Anonymous byzantine consensus from moderately-hard puzzles: A model for bitcoin., 2014. Accessed: 2016-03-09.
[MMRT03] Dahlia Malkhi, Michael Merritt, Michael K Reiter, and Gadi Taubenfeld. Objects shared by byzantine processes. volume 16, pages 37–48. Springer, 2003.
[MPR01] Hugo Miranda, Alexandre Pinto, and Luıs Rodrigues. Appia, a flexible protocol kernel supporting multiple coordinated channels. In Distributed Computing Systems, 2001. 21st International Conference on., pages 707–710. IEEE, 2001.
[MR97] Dahlia Malkhi and Michael Reiter. Unreliable intrusion detection in distributed computations. In Computer Security Foundations Workshop, 1997. Proceedings., 10th, pages 116–124. IEEE, 1997.
[MRT00] Achour Mostefaoui, Michel Raynal, and Fred´ eric Tronel. From ´ binary consensus to multivalued consensus in asynchronous message-passing systems. Information Processing Letters, 73(5-6):207–212, 2000.
[MXC+16] Andrew Miller, Yu Xia, Kyle Croman, Elaine Shi, and Dawn Song. The honey badger of bft protocols., 2016. Accessed: 2017-01-10.
[Nak08a] Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system., Dec 2008. Accessed: 2015-07-01.
[Nak08b] Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin p2p e-cash paper, 2008.
[Nar16] Narayanan, Arvind and Bonneau, Joseph and Felten, Edward and Miller, Andrew and Goldfeder, Steven. Bitcoin and cryptocurrency technologies. bitcoin book.pdf?a=1, 2016. Accessed: 2016-03-29.
[Nei94] Gil Neiger. Distributed consensus revisited. Information processing letters, 49(4):195–201, 1994.
[NG16] Christopher Natoli and Vincent Gramoli. The blockchain anomaly. In Network Computing and Applications (NCA), 2016 IEEE 15th International Symposium on, pages 310–317. IEEE, 2016.
[NKMS16] Kartik Nayak, Srijan Kumar, Andrew Miller, and Elaine Shi. Stubborn mining: Generalizing selfish mining and combining with an eclipse attack. In 1st IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2016. IEEE, 2016.
[PS16a] Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. Fruitchains: A fair blockchain., 2016. Accessed: 2016-11-08.
[PS16b] Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. Hybrid consensus: Scalable permissionless consensus., Sep 2016. Accessed: 2016-10-17.
[PS17] Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. Thunderella: Blockchains with optimistic instant confirmation. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/913, 2017. Accessed:2017-09-26.
[PSL80] Marshall Pease, Robert Shostak, and Leslie Lamport. Reaching agreement in the presence of faults. volume 27, pages 228–234. ACM, 1980.
[PSs16] Rafael Pass, Lior Seeman, and abhi shelat. Analysis of the blockchain protocol in asynchronous networks., 2016. Accessed: 2016-08-01.
[Rab83] Michael O Rabin. Randomized byzantine generals. In Foundations of Computer Science, 1983., 24th Annual Symposium on, pages 403–409. IEEE, 1983.
[Rei96] Michael K Reiter. A secure group membership protocol. volume 22, page 31, 1996.
[Ric93] Aleta M Ricciardi. The group membership problem in asynchronous systems. PhD thesis, Cornell University, 1993.
[Ros14] M. Rosenfeld. Analysis of hashrate-based double spending., 2014. Accessed: 2016-03-09.
[RSW96] Ronald L Rivest, Adi Shamir, and David A Wagner. Time-lock puzzles and timed-release crypto. 1996.
[Sch90] Fred B Schneider. Implementing fault-tolerant services using the state machine approach: A tutorial. volume 22, pages 299–319. ACM, 1990.
[SLZ16] Yonatan Sompolinsky, Yoad Lewenberg, and Aviv Zohar. Spectre: A fast and scalable cryptocurrency protocol. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1159, 2016. Accessed: 2017-02-20.
[SSZ15] Ayelet Sapirshtein, Yonatan Sompolinsky, and Aviv Zohar. Optimal selfish mining strategies in bitcoin., 2015. Accessed: 2016-08-22.
[SW16] David Stolz and Roger Wattenhofer. Byzantine agreement with median validity. In LIPIcs-Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, volume 46. Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, 2016.
[Swa15] Tim Swanson. Consensus-as-a-service: a brief report on the emergence of permissioned, distributed ledger systems., Apr 2015. Accessed: 2017-10-03.
[SZ13] Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar. Accelerating bitcoin’s transaction processing. fast money grows on trees, not chains, 2013.
[SZ16] Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar. Bitcoin’s security model revisited., 2016. Accessed: 2016-07-04.
[Sza14] Nick Szabo. The dawn of trustworthy computing., 2014. Accessed: 2017-12-01.
[TS16] Florian Tschorsch and Bjorn Scheuermann. Bitcoin and ¨ beyond: A technical survey on decentralized digital currencies. In IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, volume PP, pages 1–1, 2016.
[VCB+13] Giuliana Santos Veronese, Miguel Correia, Alysson Neves Bessani, Lau Cheuk Lung, and Paulo Verissimo. Efficient byzantine fault-tolerance. volume 62, pages 16–30. IEEE, 2013.
[Ver03] Paulo Ver´ıssimo. Uncertainty and predictability: Can they be reconciled? In Future Directions in Distributed Computing, pages 108–113. Springer, 2003.
[Vuk15] Marko Vukolic. The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: ´ Proof-of-work vs. bft replication. In International Workshop on Open Problems in Network Security, pages 112–125. Springer, 2015.
[Vuk16] Marko Vukolic. Eventually returning to strong consistency., 2016. Accessed: 2016-08-10.
[XWS+17] Xiwei Xu, Ingo Weber, Mark Staples, Liming Zhu, Jan Bosch, Len Bass, Cesare Pautasso, and Paul Rimba. A taxonomy of blockchain-based systems for architecture design. In Software Architecture (ICSA), 2017 IEEE International Conference on , pages 243–252. IEEE, 2017.
[YHKC+16] Jesse Yli-Huumo, Deokyoon Ko, Sujin Choi, Sooyong Park, and Kari Smolander. Where is current research on blockchain technology? – a systematic review. volume 11, page e0163477. Public Library of Science, 2016.
[ZP17] Ren Zhang and Bart Preneel. On the necessity of a prescribed block validity consensus: Analyzing bitcoin unlimited mining protocol., 2017. Accessed: 2017-07-20.
submitted by dj-gutz to myrXiv [link] [comments]

Navigating Bitcoin, Ethereum, XRP: How Google Is Quietly Making Blockchains Searchable

Navigating Bitcoin, Ethereum, XRP: How Google Is Quietly Making Blockchains Searchable
It’s a balmy 80 degrees on a mid-December day in Singapore, and something is puzzling Allen Day, a 41-year-old data scientist. Using the tools he has developed at Google, he can see a mysterious concerted usage of artificial intelligence on the blockchain for Ethereum. Ether is the world’s third-largest cryptocurrency (after bitcoin and XRP), and it still sports a market cap of some $11 billion despite losing 83% of its value in 2018. Peering into its blockchain—the distributed database of transactions underpinning the cryptocurrency—Day detects a “whole bunch” of “autonomous agents” moving funds around “in an automated fashion.” While he doesn’t yet know who has created the AI, he suspects they could be the agents of cryptocurrency exchanges trading among themselves in order to artificially inflate ether’s price.
“It’s not really just single agents doing things on their own,” Day says from Google’s Asia-Pacific headquarters. “They’re forming with other agents to have some larger group effect.”
Day’s official title is senior developer advocate for Google Cloud, but he describes his role as “customer zero” for the company’s cloud computing efforts. As such it’s his job to anticipate demand before a product even exists, and he thinks making the blockchain more accessible is the next big thing. Just as Google enabled (and ultimately profited) from making the internet more usable 20 years ago, its next billions may come from shining a bright light on blockchains. If Day is successful, the world will know whether blockchain’s real usage is living up to its hype.
Danish researcher Thomas Silkjaer is using Google's BigQuery to map publicly available information about XRP cryptocurrency addresses. The craters represent some of cryptocurrency's largest exchanges.
Last year Day and a small team of open-source developers quietly began loading data for the entire Bitcoin and Ethereum blockchains into Google’s big-data analytics platform, BigQuery. Then, with the help of lead developer Evgeny Medvedev, he created a suite of sophisticated software to search the data.
In spite of a total lack of publicity, word of the project spread quickly among crypto-minded coders. In the past year, more than 500 projects were created using the new tools, trying to do everything from predicting the price of bitcoin to analyzing wealth disparity among ether holders.
When it comes to cloud computing, Google is far behind Amazon and Microsoft. Last year Google pocketed an estimated $3 billion in revenue from cloud ser­vices. Amazon and Microsoft, meanwhile, generated about $27 billion and $10 billion, respectively.
Day is hoping that his project, known as Blockchain ETL (extract, transform, load), will help even the playing field. But even here Google is trying to catch up. Amazon entered blockchain in a big way in 2018 with a suite of tools for building and managing distributed ledgers. Microsoft got into the space in 2015, when it released tools for Ethereum’s blockchain. It now hosts a range of services as part of its Azure Blockchain Workbench. But while Amazon and Microsoft are focusing on making it easier to build blockchain apps, Day is focusing on exposing how blockchains are actually being used, and by whom.
“In the future, moving more economic activity on chain won’t just require a consensus level of trust,” says Day, referring to the core validating mechanism of blockchain technology. “It will require having some trust in knowing about who it is you’re actually interacting with.” In other words, if blockchain is to go mainstream, some of its beloved anonymity features will have to be abandoned.
A native of Placer County, California, Day got his first computer at the age of 5 and a few years later started writing simple programs. A fascination with volcanoes and dinosaurs turned his interest to life sciences, and he ultimately graduated from the University of Oregon with a dual degree in biology and Mandarin in 2000. From there he headed to UCLA to pursue a doctorate in human genetics and helped build a computer program to browse the genome.
It was at UCLA where Day began relying on distributed computing, a concept that is core to blockchains, which store their data on a large network of individual computers. In the early 2000s Day needed to analyze the massive amounts of data that make up the human genome. To solve this problem he hooked many small computers together, vastly increasing their power.
“Distributed-systems technology has been in my tool kit for a while,” Day says. “I could see there were interesting characteristics of blockchains that could run a global supercomputer.”
Hired in 2016 to work in the health and bio­informatics areas of Google, Day segued to blockchains, the hottest distributed-computing effort on the planet. But the talents he had honed—sequencing genomes for infectious diseases in real time and using AI to increase rice yields—were not easily applied to decoding blockchain.
Before Day and Medvedev released their tools, just searching a blockchain required specialized software called “block explorers,” which let users hunt only for specific transactions, each labeled with a unique tangle of 26-plus alphanumeric characters. Google’s Blockchain ETL, by contrast, lets users make more generalized searches of entire ecosystems of transactions.
To demonstrate how customers could use Blockchain ETL to make improvements to the crypto economy, Day has used his tools to examine the so-called hard fork, or an irrevocable split in a blockchain database, that created a new cryptocurrency—bitcoin cash—from bitcoin in the summer of 2017.
Google Cloud developer advocate Allen Day presents his early cryptocurrency work at Google's Asia Pacific headquarters in Singapore in August 2018. DORJEE SUN / PERLIN
This particular split was the result of a Hatfield and McCoy “war” within the bitcoin community between a group who wanted to leave bitcoin as it was and another who wanted to develop a currency that, like cash, was cheaper and faster to use for small payments. Using Google’s BigQuery, Day discovered that bitcoin cash, rather than increasing so-called micro-transactions, as the defecting developers claimed, was actually being hoarded among big holders of bitcoin cash. “I’m very interested to quantify what’s happening so that we can see where the legitimate use cases are for blockchain,” Day says. “Then we can move to the next use case and develop out what these technologies are really appropriate for.”
Day’s work is inspiring others. Tomasz Kolinko is a Warsaw-based programmer and the creator of a service that analyzes smart contracts, a feature of certain blockchains that is designed to transparently enforce contractual obligations like collateralized loans but with less reliance on third parties, like lawyers. Kolinko was frustrated with his blockchain queries.
In December, Kolinko met Day at a hackathon in Singapore. Within a month of the meeting, Kolinko was using Google’s tools to search for a smart contract feature called a “selfdestruct,” designed to limit a contract’s life span. Using his own software in conjunction with Day’s, Kolinko took 23 seconds to search 1.2 million smart contracts—something that would have taken hours before. The result: Almost 700 of them had left open a selfdestruct feature that would let anyone instantly kill the smart contract, whether that person was authorized or not. “In the past you couldn’t just easily check all the contracts that were using it,” Kolinko says. “This tool is both the most scary and most inspiring I’ve ever built.”
Day is now expanding beyond bitcoin and ethereum. Litecoin, zcash, dash, bitcoin cash, ethereum classic and dogecoin are being added to BigQuery. Independent developers are loading their own crypto data sets on Google. Last August, a Dutch developer named Wietse Wind uploaded the entire 400 gigabytes of transaction data from Ripple’s XRP blockchain, another popular cryptocurrency, into BigQuery. Wind’s data, which he updates every 15 minutes, prompted a Danish designer named Thomas Silkjaer to create a heat map of crypto flows. The resulting colorful orb reveals at a glance more than a million crypto wallets, including big ex­changes like Binance and London’s crypto debit card startup Wirex, which are neck deep in XRP transactions.
“Google has been a bit of a sleeping giant in blockchain,” says BlockApps CEO Kieren James-Lubin, who is partnering with Google to sell enterprise blockchain apps. In addition to Day’s work, Google has filed numerous patents related to the blockchain, including one in 2018 to use a “lattice” of interoperating blockchains to increase security, a big deal in a world where untold millions of crypto have been stolen by hackers. The company is also pushing its developers to build apps on the Ethereum blockchain, and Google’s venture arm, GV, has made a number of significant investments in crypto startups.
The giant, it seems, is waking up.
Reach Michael del Castillo at [email protected]. Cover image by Munshi Ahmed.
submitted by dForceProtocol to u/dForceProtocol [link] [comments]

Deconstructing the Blockchain to Approach Physical Limits

Date: 2018-11-08
Author(s): Vivek Bagaria, Sreeram Kannan, David Tse, Giulia Fanti, Pramod Viswanath

Link to Paper

Transaction throughput, confirmation latency and confirmation reliability are fundamental performance measures of any blockchain system in addition to its security. In a decentralized setting, these measures are limited by two underlying physical network attributes: communication capacity and speed-of-light propagation delay. Existing systems operate far away from these physical limits. In this work we introduce Prism, a new proof-of-work blockchain protocol, which can achieve 1) security against up to 50% adversarial hashing power; 2) optimal throughput up to the capacity C of the network; 3) confirmation latency for honest transactions proportional to the propagation delay D, with confirmation error probability exponentially small in CD ; 4) eventual total ordering of all transactions. Our approach to the design of this protocol is based on deconstructing the blockchain into its basic functionalities and systematically scaling up these functionalities to approach their physical limits.

  1. Ethereum Wiki proof of stake faqs: Grinding attacks.
  2. David Aldous and Jim Fill. Reversible markov chains and random walks on graphs, 2002.
  3. Gavin Andresen. Weak block thoughts... bitcoin-dev.
  4. Vivek Bagaria, Giulia Fanti, Sreeram Kannan, David Tse, and Pramod Viswanath. Prism++: a throughput-latency-security-incentive optimal proof of stake blockchain algorithm. In Working paper, 2018.
  5. Vitalik Buterin. On slow and fast block times, 2015.
  6. Alex de Vries. Bitcoin’s growing energy problem. Joule, 2(5):801–805, 2018.
  7. C. Decker and R. Wattenhofer. Information propagation in the bitcoin network. In IEEE P2P 2013 Proceedings, pages 1–10, Sept 2013.
  8. Ittay Eyal, Adem Efe Gencer, Emin G¨un Sirer, and Robbert Van Renesse. Bitcoinng: A scalable blockchain protocol. In NSDI, pages 45–59, 2016.
  9. Ittay Eyal and Emin G¨un Sirer. Majority is not enough: Bitcoin mining is vulnerable. Communications of the ACM, 61(7):95–102, 2018.
  10. Juan Garay, Aggelos Kiayias, and Nikos Leonardos. The bitcoin backbone protocol: Analysis and applications. In Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, pages 281–310. Springer, 2015.
  11. Dina Katabi, Mark Handley, and Charlie Rohrs. Congestion control for high bandwidth-delay product networks. ACM SIGCOMM computer communication review, 32(4):89–102, 2002.
  12. Aggelos Kiayias, Alexander Russell, Bernardo David, and Roman Oliynykov. Ouroboros: A provably secure proof-of-stake blockchain protocol. In Annual International Cryptology Conference, pages 357–388. Springer, 2017.
  13. Uri Klarman, Soumya Basu, Aleksandar Kuzmanovic, and Emin G¨un Sirer. bloxroute: A scalable trustless blockchain distribution network whitepaper.
  14. Yoad Lewenberg, Yoram Bachrach, Yonatan Sompolinsky, Aviv Zohar, and Jeffrey S Rosenschein. Bitcoin mining pools: A cooperative game theoretic analysis. In Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pages 919–927. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, 2015.
  15. Yoad Lewenberg, Yonatan Sompolinsky, and Aviv Zohar. Inclusive block chain protocols. In International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pages 528–547. Springer, 2015.
  16. Chenxing Li, Peilun Li, Wei Xu, Fan Long, and Andrew Chi-chih Yao. Scaling nakamoto consensus to thousands of transactions per second. arXiv preprint arXiv:1805.03870, 2018.
  17. Wenting Li, S´ebastien Andreina, Jens-Matthias Bohli, and Ghassan Karame. Securing proof-of-stake blockchain protocols. In Data Privacy Management, Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology, pages 297–315. Springer, 2017.
  18. Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system. 2008.
  19. Christopher Natoli and Vincent Gramoli. The balance attack against proof-of-work blockchains: The r3 testbed as an example. arXiv preprint arXiv:1612.09426, 2016.
  20. Kartik Nayak, Srijan Kumar, Andrew Miller, and Elaine Shi. Stubborn mining: Generalizing selfish mining and combining with an eclipse attack. In Security and Privacy (EuroS&P), 2016 IEEE European Symposium on, pages 305–320. IEEE, 2016.
  21. Rafael Pass, Lior Seeman, and Abhi Shelat. Analysis of the blockchain protocol in asynchronous networks. In Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, pages 643–673. Springer, 2017.
  22. Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. Fruitchains: A fair blockchain. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing. ACM, 2017.
  23. Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. Hybrid consensus: Efficient consensus in the permissionless model. In LIPIcs-Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, volume 91. Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, 2017.
  24. Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. Thunderella: Blockchains with optimistic instant confirmation. In Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, pages 3–33. Springer, 2018.
  25. Peter R Rizun. Subchains: A technique to scale bitcoin and improve the user experience. Ledger, 1:38–52, 2016.
  26. Ayelet Sapirshtein, Yonatan Sompolinsky, and Aviv Zohar. Optimal selfish mining strategies in bitcoin. In International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pages 515–532. Springer, 2016.
  27. Y Sompolinsky and A Zohar. Phantom: A scalable blockdag protocol, 2018.
  28. Yonatan Sompolinsky, Yoad Lewenberg, and Aviv Zohar. Spectre: A fast and scalable cryptocurrency protocol. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2016:1159, 2016.
  29. Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar. Secure high-rate transaction processing in bitcoin. In International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pages 507–527. Springer, 2015.
  30. Statoshi. Bandwidth usage.
  31. TierNolan. Decoupling transactions and pow. Bitcoin Forum.
submitted by dj-gutz to myrXiv [link] [comments]

India Security News Weekly: Edition 9 - August 12

Security Underflow (and this newsletter) is an attempt to break down barriers to knowledge about computer security among the general public. I wish to raise awareness about the risks around us and how to mitigate them or raise questions about them when we see them. Feedback/suggestions/story-tips are welcome here or you can PM me as well.
Last week's newsletter: Edition 8
Subscribe at:
Downloadable PDF for sharing

The Ticker

Ticker is a collection of interesting security news and happenings in Indian companies and startups.

Policy Water cooler

We cover the policies and other news that concerns the Indian government and citizens en masse here.
  • Detailed Report on how AADHAAR data hack incident was carried out by Abhinav Srivastav [AltNews]
Ed Note: NIC really failed on the basic security checklist for their API. Reusing/piggy-backing on unrelated interfaces, not using https, Weak authentication through a fixed secret; you name it, they had it. It's not a surprise to see someone get into the system so easily. The third party services for AADHAAR are really the bane of the whole system and any system is only as secure as the weakest link.
  • National Cyber Coordination Centre made operational: IT Mininstry [IE]
Ed Note: It remains to be seen whether NCCC is going to be for national security or will start an ever-pervasive and intrusive surveillance of Indian citizens' internet activity.


This section takes a look at the top security news around the world which impact most of us.
Malware in the npm registry
Beware of using packages even from "trusted" repositories like npm (node package manager). A malicious user uploaded packages with names very close to popular packages, which uploaded the system's environment variables to a remote server on being installed. This sets back the js community even more than the leftpad fiasco that happened last year.


Details on upcoming security conferences and other events around India.

Recommended reading this week

SHA2017 Presentations
submitted by securityunderflow to india [link] [comments]

Quarter 1, 2018 Events

March (This Month)
Date Time Event Location Speaker Recap
March 1 6:00pm-8:30pm Can Blockchain save the NHS? We Work, Old St - 41 Corsham Street London N1 6DR, United Kingdom Dr Abdullah Albeyatti (CEO) & Dr Stewart Southey (Medicalchain Advisor)
March 5th – Mar 9 All-day HIMSS Conference 2018 Venetian - Palazzo - Sands Expo Center, United States Robert Miller (Director of Business Development) Recap
March 12 11:00pm UTC AMA with Co-Founders Online Dr Abdullah Albeyatti (CEO) + Mo Tayeb (COO) Video Link
March 13th all-day (CLOSED EVENT) Towards a Health Research and Innovation Cloud – Challenges and Opportunities European Commission Dr Abdullah Albeyatti (CEO)
March 13th all-day Digital Health Technology Show ExCel London, United Kingdom Natalie (Director of Communications)
March 17th all-day National Student MedTech Conference 2018 King's College London - Waterloo Campus, United Kingdom Dr Abdullah Albeyatti (CEO)
March 20th 7pm Blockchainers: Healthcare and Blockchain Manchester Science Park, CityLabs, United Kingdom Dr Abdullah Albeyatti (CEO)
March 27th 6:30pm - 9:30pm Women in Blockchain: The Future of Healthcare on Blockchain CodeNode, London, United Kingdom Natalie (Director of Communications)
Date Time Event Location Speaker Recap
Feb 7 6:30pm-9:30pm Cryptocurrency and Beyond WorldRemit, United Kingdom Natalie (Director of Communications) Recap
Feb 8 10:00am-6:00pm Blockchain & Bitcoin Conference Gibraltar 2018 Hotel Sunborn Gibraltar, United Kingdom Mo Tayeb (COO)
Feb 12 All Day Mayo Clinic: Blockchain, Healthcare, and ICOs Mayo Clinic, United Kingdom Robert Miller (Director of Business Development) Recap
Feb 16 2:30pm-7:00pm The PathFounder: Blockchain for Business 30 Crown PI, Earl Street, London EC2A, United Kingdom Dr Abdullah Albeyatti (CEO) Recap
Feb 23 3:00pm UTC AMA with Cofounders Online Dr Abdullah Albeyatti (CEO) + Mo Tayeb (COO) Video Link
Feb 23 6:00pm-8:00pm An Introduction to Blockchain Milton Lecture Theatre, Garrod Building, Queen Mary University, United Kingdom Dr Abdullah Albeyatti (CEO) Recap
Feb 26 6:00pm-8:00pm Imperial Blockchain Forum Physica LT, Level 3, Blackett Building, United Kingdom Dr Abdullah Albeyatti (CEO)
Feb 27 5:00pm-7:00pm Blockchain in Healthcare: The Interplay of Trust and Policy New Academic Building, London School of Economics, United Kingdom Mo Tayeb (COO)
Feb 28 9:00am-1:00pm ECO 15: Digital connectivity in Health Care Haydock Park Racecourse, United Kingdom Dave Ebbitt (Health Informatics Manager)
Feb 28 6:30pm-9:30pm HealthQuake - Can AI and other frontier technologies save the health service? Shack15: The Data Science Hub, United Kingdom Dr Philip Xiu (Lead Medical Officer)
Date Time Event Location Speaker Recap
Jan 13 3:00pm - 5:00pm Blockchain Predictions 2018 Radisson Blu Hotel, Dubai Media City, Dubai Mo Tayeb (COO) Preview
Jan 14 All-day Unlock Blockchain The Ritz-Carlton, Dubai International Financial Centre Mo Tayeb (COO)
Jan 18 6:30pm-9:30pm Blockchain For Healthcare London - Medicalchain Aviva Digital Garage, London, United Kingdom Abdullah Albeyatti (CEO)
Jan 21 2:30pm-3:40pm & 6:00pm-7:10pm Blockchain Labo - Fukuoka Fukuoka, Japan Mo Tayeb (COO)
Jan 24 6:00pm-9:00pm Blockchain and Healthcare - The Blockchain Hub Room LAS-C, Lassonde Building, York University, Canada Mo Tayeb (COO)
Jan 26 8:00pm-9:10pm Blockchain Labo - Tokyo Tokyo, Japan Mo Tayeb (COO)
submitted by CD-digitalnomad to medicalchain [link] [comments]

China's Blockchain Invasion: smart cities that run on ethereum?

This is an automatic summary, original reduced by 58%.
Word in China is out about blockchain technology, as the government made clear in an Informatization Strategy published in December of 2016.
The strategy states, "The internet, cloud computing, large data, artificial intelligence, machine learning, blockchain will drive the evolution of everything - digital, network and intelligent services will be everywhere."
In the race to participate, Chinese banks, builders, suppliers and retailers are pumping out blockchain solutions.
The People's Bank of China - The PBOC is reportedly close to the release of a government-backed digital RMB currency, which would put China at the frontier of digital currency adoption.
Wanxiang Blockchain Labs - Working with Ethereum, Wanxiang is the largest blockchain development backer in China.
At a recent fintech summit in Hangzhou, Dr. Xiao Feng, GM of Wanxiang Blockchain Labs, said, "The first generation of internet technology has brought great changes to society. In China great companies like Alibaba, Tencent and Ant Financial have emerged. The blockchain represents the second generation of the internet," adding that big changes will come with artificial intelligence, encryption, decentralization, finance and the transfer of value.
Summary Source | FAQ | Theory | Feedback | Top five keywords: blockchain#1 China#2 digital#3 new#4 internet#5
Post found in /ethereum, /Futurology, /ethtrader, /BlockChain and /CryptoCurrency.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

GPN19 - Blockchain - Ein außer Kontrolle geratenes Laborexperiment? Die Blockchain-Technologie studieren? Mach's in der How Blockchain Will Shape the Future of Accounting  Jacob ... ROMAN BECK: BLOCKCHAIN Bitcoins Erklärung: In nur 12 Min. Bitcoin verstehen ...

Each block in bitcoin is limited to 1MB in size (or 8BM in the case of Bitcoin Cash). In Ethereum, blocks are capped by the gas-limit, the total overhead of all the operations in the block. Ethereum smart contract code lives at its own particular address on the blockchain as opposed to being within a transaction as in the case of Bitcoin. In the way, Ethereum has two account types, one to hold ... Every block contains its own hash and hash of the previous block. So no one is able to make changes to the historic transactions. Hence making it almost impossible to modify. The blockchain is ... The first Bitcoin block over 2 MB occurred on 20 January 2018 at block height 505,225, and weighed in at 2.17 MB. One thing peculiar about this record-setting 2.26 MB Bitcoin block was it only had 230 transactions, as compared to an average block which has a size of 0.804 MB and 1,609 transactions. Likewise, the 2.17 MB block on 20 January only ... The Dark Web and Bitcoin are both digital systems that the average person has little understanding of. Yet both of these platforms have very real impacts on the world and can affect people without their knowledge. The Dark Web is a new digital black market that uses Bitcoin as its primary currency. Both of these are considered anonymous, yet they can be combined. Similar features could then be ... Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, depends on blockchain technology. The Bitcoins are generated from the mining of a block for the miner. Every user knows about each and every Bitcoin transaction in the blockchain network. The block is immutable, because every block is verified by each customer in the blockchain network. This is the initiation for ...

[index] [46464] [37830] [4761] [28370] [19018] [14591] [2678] [14169] [4521] [46871]

GPN19 - Blockchain - Ein außer Kontrolle geratenes Laborexperiment?

Für ihre Diplomarbeit haben die beiden Informatik-Absolventen Dominik Hirzel und Andreas Schmid «Lokkit», das erste Blockchain-basierte Schliessfach, entwickelt. Das Fach wird per Smartphone ... Watch this interview of Dr. Craig Wright as he corrects a few myths about Bitcoin's origin and purpose. Don’t miss other CoinGeek Conversations podcasts - su... Blockchain and its role in handling biomedical transactions Editor, International Journal of Statistics and Medical Informatics Introduction Blockchain technology was introduced around the year ... Bitcoin für Anfänger einfach erklärt! [auf Deutsch] Bitcoin-Börse (erhalte 10€ in BTC) *📱 Sicheres Bitcoin-Wallet... 1) Alexander Norta, PhD, Assoc.-Prof. at Department of informatics, Tallin University of Technology. 2) Asse Sauga, CEO Estonian Cryptocurrency Association.